The second kingdom period(166bc-70a.d)
160b.c-142b.c:Yonatan the kohen.
Yehuda’s brother continue to lead the rebellion against the Seleucid empire,And the Seleucid Syrians were quick to realize that Yoanatan is more stable then the pro-Hellenist party in Jerusalem,And agreed to stop chasing him for up until 153 b.c
in 153b.c,Yonatan ailed Judea with Egypt's Ptolemaic, And Alexander balas,That was a contestor for the Seleucid crown.Balas offered Yonatan the kohen gadol(the highest position among the Jews at that time) position in exchange for its support and Yonatan accept that even after he receive a much greater offer from Demetrius,his Seleucid enemy.Soon after,Balas defeat Demetrius in battle,And Yonatan was the Governor of Judea under Seleucid permission.
Yonatan joined Balas in his war against Demetrius II the second,And conquer Yaffo and Ashdod in the coastal area ,against big Greek armies,Balas also gave him Eqron.
But both Balas and Ptolemy were killed in the war against Demetrius II ,even so,The new king of Syria quickly made peace with Yonatan and granted him his ruler rights,and even gave him parts of the Shomron(Samaria) to rule,Which were populated with many Jews,And was also free of tax to the empire,This consider to be the beginning of the independent of Judea.
Later Yonatan switch sides and allied himself with the Syrian general Tripon, And made treaties with Rome and also the famous city state of Sparta.
But Tripon eventually berried Yonatan and kidnapped him in Acre,Until he eventually he killed him.
142.c: Shimon the leader of Judea: the brother of Yonatan.
Shimon push out Tripon from Judea and Alined with Demetrius II, That acknowledged again Judea as an independent nation.
In 141b.c Shimon crushed the last pro-Hellenist's from Jerusalem,And renewed his treaties with Rome and Egypt.
Shimon assembled the people in Jerusalem and was crowned as the ruler(NASI) and Kohen gadol of Judea. shimon also published Judea's own coins.
On the same year Tripon dare to murder the boy king, Antiocus the 6,And tried to rule the empire.But Demetrius I son,Antioucus the 7,Rised to power against Tripon. At first he conditioned his support in Shimon with help against Tripon,But very soon Tripon fled to Dor,A city south of Acre,and Antioucus felt that Shimon is not needed any more and demand that Shimon return all the territories outside Judea to Syria like like Jaffa and Gezer or pay for them allot of silver,and another demand of allot silver for war damage and unpaid taxes.
Shimon replayed to his demands in words that are actual for today as well:
*we didn't conquer and occupied a foreign land,this is our fathers territory!that was taken from them unfairly by our enemies,and now that we had the opportunity,we liberated our fathers territory back to us*
After Shimon and his two sons Yochanan and Yehuda defeated Antioucus army near Gezer, Antiocuse conspire to assassins Shimon,And he was murdered in Jericho by his father in law,Ptolemy ben havuv,that tried to rebel against the Hashmonai ruling family,but found zero support from the people ..
134b.c Yochanan horknus
som of shimon.
ptolamei stil hold yochan's mother as a prisoner,so yochanan left that traitor in Jericho.
he Faced an invasion by Antioucus the 7 in 134 b.c,And decided to stay in Jerusalem.
After 2 years of siege on Jerusalem,Both sides decided to make peace,And Yochanan agreed to pay taxes of territories outside Judea,And agreed to help the Seleucid in their wars.Later his army would participate in the wars against the Pertains with great success.Though later in 129 Antioucus died in Pertia,And Yochanan was free to do as he wish.
Yohanan horknus expended east and south and conquer the Edomim, And force them to convert to Judaism, instead of expelling them.
He also conquer the Shomron and destroyed Samaria,And Beit shaan.The Hellenist Greek cities were completely alone against him.
In 112-113,Antiocus the 9 occupies the coastal area from the Jews,But later the Romans forced him evacuate that area in favor of the Jews.
Later when the Jews attacked the Hellenist city of Samaria,that stud on the ruins of the old capital of the northern kingdom of Israel,both Antiocus the 9 and Ptolemai Latirus tried to send forces to help the Hellenist but their armies fell in the hands of Yochanan ,that also conquer Beit shaan and the Jizrali valley.
Yohanan had treaties with other nations in Asia minor and Greece as well.
Yochanan ruled until 104 b.c.his son ,yehuda aristobulos that ruled for one year, in which he conquer the Galil and convert all of its inhabitants to Judaism.
Despite that, Yehuda was supposed to be the Kohen while his mother was appointed to be the Nasi.But Yehuda, Killed his mother and brothers, And crowned himself as king,Just like the Greeks.
103b.c-76 b.c:Alexander yanai.
He was Yehuda aristobuloss little brother, That after Yehudas death married his wife,Shlomzion.
Like other Hashmonaim rulers, Ashkelon wasn’t harmed by the Jews because of its ties with Egypt,But yanai didn’t renewed the treaties with Rome, Instead he had treaties with the Pertains and Puntus.
First, Yanai attacked Acre that was very hostile to Jews(Yonatan was killed there by Tripon)but Acre received help from Ptolemaic Latirus, That rebelled against the Ptolemaic queen, Cleopatra III. Latirus fought against Yanai near the yarekon river and won, But Cleopatra sanded her army,Which was led by two Jewish generals, The sons of Honiyo VI,And many of their soldiers were Egyptian-Jews.
Yanai expended even more in trans Jordan ,And fought against the Nabatians,and conquer the Hellenist cities there.He also destroyed Gaza.
In 90 b.c, A civil war started in Judea.
Besides the wars that were expensive in money and casualties ,Yanai was a king just like the Greek kings,And on the same time a Kohen gadol in the temple.
Yanai preferd the Kohanim (Tsadokim) over the Proshim(wise scholars) even though the Hashmonaim legitimacy came from their support as a consulting body like a Parliament.
The war took 6 years and 50,000 people died.In the end, With his wife's influence, Yanai agreed to give the Sanhedrin(the Parliament or court)its legitimate power.
76 b.c-67 b.c:Shlomzion the queen:
The Kohen gadol position was headed by her son Yochana horknus II, But she was the actual ruler. As a relative of Shimon ben shatach,One of the sages of the Sanhedrin, She was very popular among the people, And she avoided wars, Though according to Flavius, her army was bigger then any other country in the region. Despite that, She avoided conflicts with the Armenian empire by paying a tribute to its king, Tygranes.
The dispute after Shlomzion death:
Already before the mother dies,Her sons, Aristobulos and Horknus started to fight over the crown.
After a short fight Aristobulos won and ruled for 4 years.
Later Horknus joined with Antipatris,A former Edomi that converted to Israel,And was very rich,Together with the Nabatim,Attack Aristobolus and siege him in the temple,Later they fled after Roman treat.
At that time Pompoius, the famous Roman general conquered Syria and Asia minor,And the two rival princes ask his support, And he chose Horknus,And siege Jerusalem for 3 months,Killing 12,000 Jews,And in the end entered the temple,Though he didn’t plunder it.
Judea was putted under Horknus rule, Though the real power was now in Antipatris hands that served the Romans.This was the end of the independent Hashmonait kingdom in 63 b.c.
55b.c-57 .c:Alexander son of aristobulos II,Rebelled against Horknus and conquer Jerusalem, Antipatris called Gabunius the governor of Syria and after some years of war,Aristobulos and his son were killed. In 54b.c the new Governor of Syria, Keresus,Plunder the temple treasures.
Though at first Julius ceaser,the famouse roman general and emporer, supported Aristobulos, but after he died
In 48b.c Antipatis helped Julius Cesar in Egypt, And he was appointed the governor of all of Israel.
In 44 b.c Antipatris was poisoned by Horknus supporters, And in order to appeased his son,Hordus, Horknus had his granddaughter Miriam to Hordus.
Up until 41 b.c there were a few rebellions against Hordus, Because of the war in Rome after ceasers assassination but markus Antonius and Casius(the rulers of the east) supported Hordus and Horknus.
40b.c-37 b.c: the last Hashmonai revolt.
Antigonus II, Another son of aristobulos II, Invaded Judea with the help of the Pertains, And repelled hordus and horknus.
He ruled the Galil as well and stamp coins.
Eventually, Hordus was able to convince Markus Antonius to support him.Though antigonus defeated Hordus in every battle, He couldn't stand against the Romans , And after a long siege on Jerusalem and the temple, Antigonus was captured.
The hordus dynasty:37b.c-4 b.c:
Hordus ruled under the permission of Marcus Antonius and later Augustus, On all of the land that was ruled before by the Hashmonaim with addition to big territories in south Syria.
He was an absolute and Tyran ruler, And he eventually eliminate every Hashmonai remains in his family, Including his wife anf his sons from her.He was a real king,and all the preveius srtacture of Jewish self-govering,the Hashmonai family and the Kohanim and the Sanhedrin power sharing administartion,was generaly ignored.
In 31b.c Hordus was busy fighting against the Nabatim, And wasn’t available to help Antonius against Augustus, A fact that was very lucky for him, And Augostus accepted his loyalty, And gave him parts of the land that Antonius gave to Cleopatra VII before.
Hordus maintain very good relation with the Jews overseas, And helped to protect them from oppressions from their hellenist neigbores. He also build many fortress, including the city of Ceseria and its big port, Sabastei in the Shomron, And he also build cities and structure in Rods and Asia minor, but his biggest project was the new building for the temple in Jerusalem, Which was very big, Strong ,And amazingly beautiful .
At that time, The Sanhedrin, Or the court,Become the main religion Leadership of the people and was gathered in the temple,While the Kohen gadol position become completely irrelevant,Since the Herodian kings appointed the people they wanted to appoint to that important position,Regardless of the tradition.
The Sanhedrin,Are actually the second temple period name for the Kneset gedola,which was the assembly of the elders of Israel that advised to the Israeli leaders in the first temple period,And served as the third body of Jewish administering,Along side the Kings and their governor's,And the Kohanim that served in the temple.As long as the were no longer Jewish kings since 586 b.c,The Kohen gadol position was the highest of all since the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem,But this was mainly because the kohen gadol was from the house of Tsadok,That serve in that position since the days of Mosess,the Israelis most important leader ever , and later in the first temple.Once the appointment of the kohen gadol become political during the Seleucid period,The Kneset gedola return to the stage and after the demise of the Jewish Hashmonaim kingdom they become the highest authority up until 425 a.d.
The Sanhedrin, Was led by Hillel since the first century b.c, That was a descended of the house of David. His dynasty will lead the people up until 429 a.d.
After Hordus death:
While Hordus planted to split the control over the kingdom among his three sons,A rebellion occurred in Judea and the Romans, Headed by varus, Brutally quailed it.
First Arcelius,Which was appointed to rule Judea, Failed to appease a small demonstration against the heavy taxes in Jerusalem,And it ended up in 3000 deaths.While Arcelius went to Rome to get the emperors approval, The Governor of Syria,Varus,Allowed Sabinus to enter Jerusalem to confiscate treasures, angry Jews attacked Sabinus while he was plundering the temple,And when Varus came to his defence,The entire country rebelled against the Romans,And spontaneous attack against the Romans occurred.
The Romans burned down Tsipori, Amaus,but spared Jerusalem.
Arceleus: ruled Judea from 4b.c to 6 a.d .He was removed after the Jews compliant about him to the emperor. He was replaced by Roman governors over Judea.
direct Roman governorship over Judea while other parts of Judea,like the Galil and the Golan are ruled by Jewish kings created a very strange political situation for the Jews.this was a good example of the Roman
divid and conqure method.
Philpus: ruled the northern areas like the Golan and the Bashan until 34 ad.
Was consider to be a very modest ruler.it is said that he spend his time going from town to town,and set on his chairs and judge the people very humbly.
Antipas: ruled from 4b.c to 39 a.d over the Galil and parts of Transjordan.
He rebuilt Tsipori,And build the new city of Tiberia near the sea of Galil. Though he wasn’t in charge of Judea, He intervene for the Jews in Judea,Especially when the Roman governors oppressed them or offended their traditions.
In 39 a.d emperor Caligola replaced him with Agripas I, And he was exiled to Europe.
Agripas I:was Hordus grandson, And was raised in Rome, And was friend with emperors Caligola and Cludius since their childhood.
In 38 was appointed by Caligola the emperor ro rule Philipuss territory in the north,But very soon the tensions with Antipas in the Galil,Made Agripas the ruler of Antipass territory as well. He was appointed on the kohanim in the temple in Jerusalem.
In 41 he prevented from Caligola to put an idol inside of the temple.
Soon after that Caligola was murdered and Cludius replaced him, With the help of Agripas.
Claudius,the next emporer,which is famouse from the Robert Graves's novel* I claudius*,
gave Judea to Agripas, And this way he ruled independently on the same territory as his grandfather,Hordus.
Agripas was very popular on the people, And his devotion to his Jewish origins and fate were adored .On the same time,His efforts to gain support from the Hellenist cities under his realm were scarce .
In 44 Agripas died, and the entire land was returned to Roman government.
He was Agripas son, And was appointed in 48 to rule parts of the Galilee, With authority over the temple of Jerusalem. In 54 and 61 he was granted control on big areas in the north part of Israel.
Agripas tried to convince the Jews not to rebelle against the Romans,But failed,And eventually participate in the quailing of the rebellion.
Agripas continued to rule parts of the north after the rebellion, But his
connection with his people,The Jews, Was totally severed.
66-73 the great revolt against the romans and the destruction of Jerusalem.
The roman governess of Judea were always greedy and brutal, But the last one Florus, Was the worst.
After he did nothing when Hellenists massacred Jews in Cesaria, And later came to Jerusalem and started to plunder the temple,A big riot started in Jerusalem that started a revolt all over the country.
The rebbells repelld the Romans from Jerusalem,But the rebellion government was a very brutal one, And even murdered its own people if they show opposition.
On the same time the Hellenist in the mix cities massacred the Jews,And Jews attacked Hellenist cities.The ethnic riots occurred in Alexnadria as well,As more then a million Jews lived there at that time.
In response,Galos,The Syrian Governor,Invaded Judea and destroyed Yaffo,Afek,Lidia and Narbata, Killing thousands of Jews and enslaving them.After seiging the temple for 5 days,He returned to the west and the Jews attack him in the Beit horon narrow pass and eliminate parts of the 12 legion and took its Aquila(eagle)according to Tacitus.
After the victory over Galus, Judea consider itself free. The people assembled and new government was elected,And its leaders were mainly the moderate part,and not the Zealots,Even though they were the ones that defeated Galus.
New Jewish coins were printed as well.
The government appointed generals to every part of the land.Josefus Flavius(yosef ben matityau)was appointed on the Galil and Golan.
Though he fortified 19 cities in the Galil,He had very bad relations with the local leaders and when the Romans returned 5 months later the area wasn’t ready yet for defence.
Even when Aspisyanus the general that would later be the new emperor,Landed in Acre, He waited until the winter will pass before marching into the Galil and destroying its cities,Inslaving its Jews and massacring them.
Tsipori didn’t even fought, And after 47 days of siege on Yodfat,The city fall, And Tiberias surrendered, Traichei fall, And 40,000 Jews were sold as slaves.
Later Gamla and Gosh halev were fallen with great massacre of its civilians.
Until 69 a.d, The Romans took control over all the land,Circulating Jerusalem and closing on it.
Already at that time, The leader of the Sanhedrin, Yochanan ben zakai, Objected to the rebellion,And fled from Jerusalem,And were granted permission to renew the Sanhedrin in Yavne,near Yaffo.
Meanwhile the moderate government was overthrown by the zealot leader from the Galil, Yochanan of Gush halev, And out side of the walls,a different zealot leader was, Bar giora.But later the remaining moderates allow Bar giora to enter the city Thinking that he will get rid of Yochanan, In the great battle,All the food storage was burned down,And only when the Romans appear again in Jerusalem, The rivals ended.
The son of Aspisyanus,arrive to Jerusalem from the north with 80,000 man.
After 5 months of brave fighting of the hungry Jews Titus destroyed all the walls and burned down the temple, While hundreds of thousand of Jews died in the swords and hunger.
1/4 of the Jewish population were killed in the war.according to Josefus plasvius,1,100,000 were killed either by the sword or in hunger,and 97,000 were enslaved from Jerusalem.
it seem that most of the captives were brought to Italy.the famous Titus gate depicte Jewish captives follow Roman soldier,the captives carry the great Menora from the temple.many of them were relised by the already existing Jewish comonity of Rome.
others from the captives,the strong were sold to be gladetors,the children and women were sold to work in prostitution,while the adult man were send to work in mines.
In 73 a.d, The last Jewish strong hold, Masada, Fall.
With the end of the rebellion,Judea became a Roman province,And its capital was Cesaria,All Jews,both in judea and over seas,
had to pay special tax,In addition to other taxes.
The Sanhedrin become the exclusive leader of the people, And with the temple gone, The worship and animal sacrifice was replaced with praying and reading the Torah in the synagogue,And the study of the Torah and charity