Up until now, the Sanhedrin leaders were:
Hillel(100 b.c-10b.c)was descended from king David. Was very liberal and was
Sensitive to protect the poor people from the rich ,Especially when it come to paying back loans.
Many of his words become an important part of the Israeli fate, like :*love the other the way you love yourself*, Or, *don’t do to others what you don't want to be done to you*.And many many other words of wisdom.
Shimon ben hillel
Hillels son,was old when his father died,and after leading the sanhedrin for a very short time,pass the position to his son,Gamliel.
from his time,the leadership of the sanhedrin stoped being a couple rule,and become a one man rule.
His son,Rabbi gamliel the elder(10 b.c-50 a.d)he is the rabbi that created the most important prayer in the Israeli fate: The 18 blesses prayer, which is being used by all jews all over the world ever since that time and today as well in every single daily prayer.He also was very active in the women rights in the Halacha, Especially when it came to divorce.
His son,Rabbi shimon ben gamliel the elder(50-70).was executed by the Romans.
After the revolt in 66-70, The Romans didn’t want rabbi shimons son,gamliel, to led the Sanhedrin ,Because he was related to the people that participate in the rebellion,And for a short time ,Rabbi Yochanan ben zakai was the leader from Judea.
Rabbi yochanan ben zakai helped allot to revive the Jewish poeple after the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem.
He oppsoed the rebelion and escaped from Jerusalem to Yavne before the city fall.he establish the Sanhedrin in Yanve and by that securing the continuecy of the Jewish autonomic religous leadership over the Jews in Judea and all over the world.
Rabbi gamliel of Yavne(son of rabbi shimon ben gamliel)96-117was in hiding up until 96,When the Roman emporer,Nerva,Was more liberal with the Jews.
He travel all around the country, And also send messengers to Jewish communities around the empire, To encourage them and to installed in them the teaching of the Torah.
In his time,There was a decision to create a basic fundamental Halacha(rules)and to close any open dispute about any kind of subject,Based on the rule of the majority among the top wise man of Israel, based on the Hillel liberal style of judging,In contras to the Shamai strict style.
the absent of the temple of Jerusalem left a huge void in th Jews tradition system.they couldnt worship their god anymore,so the study of the torah by all Jewish people and the observence of daily prayers become method of worship to god.one of the positive result to that was that most Jews could read and write,a skill that in most other nations up until the modern age was limited to only a few people.
In the end of his period occurred the Jewish rebellion in the middle east.Jews in Egpyt,Libiya,Cyprus,and Judea rebelled against the Romans, and in the riots hundred of thousands of Hellenist and Jews were killed.In 117,The rebellion was quailed,And the rebels escaped to Lidiya.After the city fall,Its civilians were executed.
Rabbi shimon ben gamliel II, Was only a baby when his father died,And this is why Rabbi Akiva,Served as the leader of the Sanhedrin at that period.
Rabbi akiva(16-136)his one of the most famous rabbis in the Israeli fate.Living 120 years,He studied from all the important rabbis,Like rabbi Tarpon,and Yehoshua ben henaniya.Rabbi akiva is actually the center of the Jewish oral tradition,And his philosophy was that though everything is already determined by heaven,People do have a free choice to do right or wrong.
Rabbi akiva was the main supporter on the second revolt against the Romans:The Bar kockva revolt:
The Roman emperor Hadrianus builded a Roman city on the ruins Jerusalem,This was the main reason for the revolt.
According to Dio casio, The Jews assembled an army and weapons,And trained for years,Without the Romans even knowing about that,And build many caves and tunnels to escape.
The Jewish rebellion was focused mainly in Judea and Transjordan, Though scholars are debated if Bar kokva ever liberated Jerusalem.its seems that just like in the great revolt in 66,Tsipori and Tiberias,the biggest cities in the Galil,didnt participate in the rebelion,and thanks to that,the storng Jewish population in the Galil was spared,and from the 2 century most of the Jews in Israel lived there.
Its started in 132, And in the Roman counter attackes the 22 Roman legion was completely eliminated.
The Jews,led by Bar kochva,a charismatic worrier ,lived independently and even printed its own coins up until the rebellion was quailed in 135 a.d.it seem that the the capital was the city of Beitar,which was in Judea,though some suggest that it was a city near the coast in today's Hadera city,because the Talmud say that the blood of the thousands of massacred Jews flow to sea like a river,and some think that it was actually in Hadra which was near Cesaria(near the hadera wally),a city that would have huge Jewish population up until the Cruusaders period(from 1099).
After that ,3 legions in the command of Juliyus Severus came from Britan,In addition to 10 other legions and more then 30 units.In two years,The Romans conduct garila warfare against the Jewish garrisons,Instead of confronting them on direct battles,And cutting their supply ruts one by one, Last fortress,beitar fell and Bar kokva died.
According to Dio casio, 580,000 Jews were killed,and 985 villages were destroyed.
Hundreds of thousands of Jews were sold to slavery in Hevron and Gaza and were transported to many different parts of the empire.
After that the emperor decided to totally eliminate the Israeli fate,First the province name was changed from Judea to Syria Palestina,and the observing of Shabbat and circumcision were baned and punished with death.Many important rabbis were excuted.
how ever, the name Judea as the name of the provice wasnt complitely erased in the eyes of the Romans.flavius boatos that was the governor of syria palestina until 186 is recorded in an astel that was found in asia minor as the governor of Judea.
Jews that exiled from Judea and the Galil to Europe by the Romans also werent called palestininans even if their origin land name was changed,and the romans kept on taxing them a speical tax as a punishment for the revolts in the 1 and 2 century.
After the Bar kokva failed revolt
130-160;The leader of the Sanhedrin,Rabbi shimon ben gamliel II,Was very young during the rebellion,And according to the Talmud, Supported the rebellion though he was too young to join the rebellion.
After that,In 138,The emperor Pius stop the suppression on the Jews and the laws against them(such as regarding Shabat and circumcise)and the rabbi return to Judea as a leader. While he was gone the rabbis decided the partition of the year without him.
The Nasi,With the help of other rabbis like rabbi Meir,Helped the Jews rebuild the land after the destruction of the rebellion,And they assembled the Sanhedrin in Hosha,In the Galil,an area that was puppulted with many Jews and wasnt harmed as bad like Judea in the rebelion,After the center in Yavne was closed.
The first thing that the sanhedrin had to do was to ransom the thousands of Jews that were enslaved during the Bar kokva revolt.the amount of prisoner was so high that the price of each Jewish prisoner was as low as hourse food.a great number of prisoners were bought by varius slave traders that spread them all over the Roman empier.
Rabbi meir,Was a very important scholar of the Torah,and many of its comments are mention in the Mishna, Which would be compiled 50 years later.
Rabbi meirs traditions and legends are the source to the common believe among Jews even since that period,That charity to the poor Jewish community in the holy land is a gesture that grant mercy from God,a tradition that was observed for more 1500 years.
The work of rabbi Shimon Bar yochai to rebuild the nation after 20 years of massacres and exiles was crucial for the continuity of the Israeli nation,And this is why he play a very important part in the Kabala.
Another important sage is rabbi Yochanan hasandlar,That died in 150.
He was a descended of king David from his grandsons father,And one of his descended would be Rashi(rabbi shimon itschaki)from the 12 century, That most of the Ashkenazi Jews are descended from.
160-220: Rabbi Yehuda hanasi,
The rabbi had good relations with the Romans and according to the Talmud he had a personal relation with emporers Pius and later Markus orelius,And Karakala.
during that time,emporers like Sverus and Alagabalus were from Syria and Phonica,and they generaly treated the Jews in the empier better then befor,especilay the Jews in Israel.
Yehuda moved the Sanhedrin to Tsipori,Which was a big Jewish city at that time,And the Nasi received big land to rule from the Romans.Like in betshearim of the galil.,he also owned land in beitshaan,transjordan,the Golan and the Bashan,in the Galil and in Judea.
During his time Jews were allowed to dwell in some parts of Jeruslaem.
Rabbi Yehuda hanasi even had the right to punish his subject to death,a right that the Romans usualy didnt gave to the civilians of the provinces under their control,from his time and forward,the Jews had their own religous autonomy in Israel.
In 192,A civil war brooked in the empire as two forces fought for the crown,And according to the Talmud 24 towns near Lod were harmed,Since some Jews helped one side and other Jews helped the other.In 194 the winner pardon all of the Jews in Israel.The next emporer, Karakala, Was also in friendly relation with Yehuda, And gave the Nasi big lands in the Golan.According to the Talmud,The Nasi even owned ships that trade in with foreign countries.
Yehuda hanasi most important project is the compile of the Mishna, Which is the oral tradition of the Tora,that was passed from one generation to the next since the days of the Hebrew patriachs,.
The oral traditions, That explained in details the laconic orders in the written Torah,Were forbidden to put in writing,But Hanasi was afraid that it would be forgotten, And he putted it in the Mishna.
Yehuda hanasi is mention in it many times,usually under the tittle Rabbi:
220-230:rabbi gamliel barbi(gamliel III):yehuda’s son .
230-270:rabbi yehuda nesia:(yehuda II)gamliel son.
Was a nasi that dedicated to the education of the children.
Important rabbis in his long period were rabbi Rish lakish,And rabbi Yochanan,That are mention many times in the Talmud,As both of them study in the important Yeshiva in Tiberia and their arguments about logic are very famous.
Rabbi yochanan was the main editor of the Jerusalem Talmud that would be published in around 370-350.
The period(235-280)was a very unstable time in the Roman empire, And the Jews in Judea suffer from it.
In the end of the period, The area was briefly occupaid by the Palmyrene empier,With not much changes in the status of the Jews.
It seem that Zenubia that ruled until 272, Not only didn't harm the Jews but rather treat them fairly,Some unconfirmed Christian sources claim that she converted to Judaism.Despite that,The leader of the Jews,Rabbi Yochanan,That was almost a 100 years old after 80 years as the leader of the Tiberia yeshiva,Didn't saw Palyrene in a positive way and wish for its fall.Maybe he didn't want to awake Jews to jump again to the dangerous adventurer of rebellion against the Roman empire,And indid a few years later the Roman returned to rule Israel for another 360 years,And Zenubia was quickly forgotten.
270-290 rabbi gamliel IV yehudas son.In his time rabbi Hoshaya worked on his collection of present and past breitot,Articles that weren’t written in the Mishna by various rabbis about various subjects.
During his time,the burden of taxes that was imposed on the Jews in Israel was very heavy.beside the pol tax,and the land tax,there was the duty to serve in the army.though there were a few ways to pay for an examption from that duty .in addition there was a special tax on crops for the army,and there was the duty to house soldiers in the civilans houses and to feed them.also,civilains could be recruted to any kind of public work without any payment,like delivering mail or fixing roads and bridges.
the main problem for Jews was that they are religosly work the land 6 years and in the 7 year they are forbiden to work the land,thats the way is was since the bible time,and the Hellenist and Roman governors usulay exampt them form taxes during that year,but from around 270 that exempt was canceled,and brought great poverty over many Jews in the land,some even imigrated to Balionia .
290-320-rabbi yehuda nesia II(yehuda III).In his time the famuse rabbi Assi and rabbi Ami worked.
During his time the separation between the Nasi political position and the Hakam religous position of the head of the academy was becoming greater,while rabbi Yochanan was the head of the academy and all Jews were subjected to him in religous affairs,the nasi had his political power and police.there was even one occasion that the nasi wanted to arrest one of the rabbis,but was stopped by rabbi Yochanan.
Its seems that some Jews returned to settle in Judea,in places like Maun for example
The bizantic occupation(350-620)
320-365:Rabbi hillel II.yehuda’s son.
In his period the Roman empire adopted Christianity as is formal religion,and that came with oppression of the Jews all over the empire,Especially in Israel.imigration of chritians to Israel also started,along side a great wave of pilgrimers that came every year to the many churches that were built.
The Sanhedrin was prohibited from holding meetings,And that prevented from the Jewish authorities to declared the annual order of the year.
This is why, Rabbi Yehuda in 359,Assembled the modern Jewish calendar,Which is not based on actual observation of the moon period, But rather on a algorithm that predict the moon and sun cycles, Though the development of the calendar continued a few hundred years later.
329: a new law that inforced that punished with death any Jews that would harm any Jew that decided to convert to Christianty,while converting to Judesam was punishible with death.In 335 the purchase of non-Jewish slaves by Jews was also forbiden.
In 351 another Jewish revolt occurred in Judea, Called the Galos revolt.
The revolt wasn’t just because of the constant occupation, And the historic opportunity to rebel against Rome when its in a week time,But also a result of the weeking of the Sanhedrin power among the Jews, and as a result of the Christian pressure.
The rebellion was centered in Tsipori,Tiberia and Lidia,But though the rebbelles conquered Jerusalem,The Sanhedrin didn’t supported them,and this is why when the Roman came and quailed the rebellion without too much troubles,There were no prosecution against the Jews more then usual and massacres and explosion didn’t occurred all over the land,but in those three cities thousands were massacered,including children.
However,Tiberia and Tsipori and Lidiya were destroyed,And the Jews tsipori had to hide in caves for years.The absent of the Jews of Tsipori,Made the Jews of Tsipori pass the religious authority to the Jews of Babilon.
In 362,The new emperor,Julian the apostate,Was against the rule of Christianity,And tries to re-build the temple in Jerusalem(which Jews weren't allowed to enter to since 70 a.d).Jews from all over the empire returned to Israel and started the rebuild the templ and they destroyed the alter that emperor Hedrian builded on the ruins of the temple.The works continued until 27/5 363 because of a big earthquake,And later in 26/6 the emperor died in battle,And the emperor after him canceled the plan completely.
This was indid a great historical mistake by the Jews.Who knows what efect could the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem would have had on the fate of the Jewish people in Israel in the all world,and what efect would that be for the development of Cristianity and Islam and their attituds towards the Jews.
365-385:rabbi gamliel V
During his time rabbi Yermiya and Rabbi Yosi ben yosi were famous rabbis.This is the time that the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled, A collection of articles that interpetent the Mishna.
385-400: rabbi yehuda IV:
388: The Christian enforced a law that forbid mix marrige between Jews to Christians.How ever,the emporer Theodesius for example,publish a law in 392 that forbid anyone from interapting the internal affaris of the Jewish community in Israel,no one had the right to interapt the Nasi.though the law is actualy saying that no one is allowed to interapt the Nasi from excommunicating a fellow Jew from the community,meaning that the Christian expeceted that Jews that were excommunicated could become Christians,and therefore didnt want to interapt.
in 393 the emporer publish a law that punish any one that dystroy a synagougue.
Two governors of Syria palestiana were punished by the emporer for disrespecting the Nasi,one was Hilarius that was removed in 395,and the other Hesecius act against the nasi was excuted by the emporer.this is remarkable, since 30 years later the Nasi position would be complitely abolish by the christians.
395:The Hons,barbarian tribes from the north invade the roman empier and even reach Israel and destroy what ever they can before their brifely retareted back north.
400-425:rabbi gamliel IV the last Nasi of the Sanhedrin.In 415 the Nasi was charged with disobeying the law by building new synagogues,Circumcise of salves,And judging in cases where Christians are involved,And he was punished.In 425 he died with no heir,And by this the Hillel dynasty of 500 years had ended.
Around that time the famuse Christian writer Heronimus report about he great number of Jews(like worms) in the land and their long living.
it seem that Jews started to return to live in Judea,especily in Hevron and Beit guvrin at that time too.
from that time and on,the building and rebuilding of synagouge was forbiden.
425-520: The Tiberia academy :
This a period of time,that the Jews didn’t had a religious leaders who were legitimate because of their dynasty and relation to old sages,And they took a passive role in the land.in the replace of the Jewish patriach(the Nasi)the leader of the Jews and their represenitive in face with the Byzantines was called the ROSH PIRKE(head of the yeshiva).
429:the emporer order that two different sanhedrin would be inplaces,one for plaestina prima in cesaria and the other to palestina secunda
.At that time the western Roman empire collapsed in 476,And in a few occasion in that century,The Samaritans rebelled against the Christians,But there is no record for the Jews joining them.The rebellion coased the masaacres of most of the Samaritans population in the center of the country.
438:The Byzants allow Jews to dwell in Jerusalem.
The Jewish leadership in Isarel,Was very exited that and invite many Jews from Persia and Rome to return to dwell in the city.When the Jewish holidays started,around a 100,000 Jews gathered in Jerusalem,But were attacked with stones by Christians monks.
During the Christian attack some Jews were killed,and it seems that it was orginised by the fanatic monk,Barsuma,that was responsinle for the destruction of some Jewish synagogues and killing Jews in 422 and 421.including the big synagogue in Muab,in Trans-jordan.
The splits and disputes between the Christians put the official anti Jews legislation to a halt and the Jews used that opportunity to grow in numbers,To build and rebuild new and big synagogues all over the country and to cultivate the land.The Tiberias rabbis even inspired the kingdom of Hymar to accepted the Jewish faith.
453:Jews from Babilon return to live in Israel.
484:The Samaeretans rebel and capture Cesaria and Nablus,Until they are repelled.
during that time the first important paytan,hebrew poet lived,Yosi ben yosi.
520: The mar zutra dynsty.
In 500,Mar zutra, A relative of the head of the Jews in Babilon,And a descended from king David,Rebelled against the religious oppression of the Sasanid perisan empire,And even ruled a small Jewish fief in Persia for a few years, Before the Persian re occupied the area.His son,Fled to Israel after his father execution,And was accepted in Tiberia as a leader.Mar zutra led the Jews in Israel from Tiberia,And his descenders led the people for 7 generation(mar zutra the son,rabi guria,mar zutraIV,rabi Yaakov,rabi migas,rabi nechamiya ,rabi avdimi)were the head of the Jews in Israel(according to seder olam zuta)
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=429&letter=S&search=MAR ZUTRA III
Rabbi Yenei:a famous hims writer.Many of his himes are inbeded in the Jewsih prayer book.
His successor, Rabbi eliezer klir, Lived up until 650,Wrote hundred of himes,Many are embedded in many important prayers.
those rabbis where some of the many rabbis that wrrited piyutim,which are blesses and prayers that are stile used up until today in everyday and holiday services.
In a time when most of the Jewish poppulation in occupied Judea spoke mainly in Aramaic,the piyutim writers,or Paytanim,wrote in poetic Hebrew.
It seems that every Jewish community in the land had its own Paytanim,and they usualy wrote their poems for Shabat or for some hollyday.
Yenei poems were so pupular and loved that even the Christians loved it.the famous Christian poet Romanus melodist is known to used many of Yeneis poems.
Asaf harofe, A famose Jewish physician from Israel,Write the first hebrew medicine book,And the first hebrew translation to greek medicine books.Many future phisician will base their practice on his writings.
535:The Byzantine emporer Justinian conquer the autonomic Jewish community in the Red sea island of Yatba(Tiran)near Eilat.
During that time of the Christian supression of the Jews in the Byzantine empire and the Sasanid empire a well was worsten.
541:a great plague spread from Egypt in the land and kill many people.
556:The Jews joined forces with the Samaretans last rebellion ,That failed.
607:The Byzantine emperor,Phocas,Is trying to forcibly convert the Jews in Israel to christianity.
614: The Jewish rebellion against the Byzantine empier.
At that time, The Byzantine empire was in a week position ,Because its emperor was assassinate,And the Sasasind empire wish to take that to its own advantage .
They aliened with the Jews from babel,Together with the Jews in Israel, Under the leadership of Benjamin of Tiberia,And they conquered Israel with out much of resistance.The Jewish army was of 20,000 soldiers from Babel and probably the same number from the Jews in Israel, Especially the from galil area,
According to Sefer Zrubabel and to the Armenian historian Sebeos:
Tough the Christians in Jerusalem surrendered,And the Jews ruled the city peacefully for a couple of months,The Christian mob assassinat the Jewish leader and his 12 advisers,And massacred and expelled the Jews from the city walls.
The Jews returned ,Together with the Persians and siege the city for 19 days.After the city fall,A massacre of the inhabitants occured trhough all the city and land, And some Christians even converted to Judaism.
The Persian king how ever didn’t like the way things become,And he ordered the Jewish troops to be driven off the city,And they were stationed near the Golden gate(in the east side of the temple month),And after some Jews claimed the perisans are betriying them,The persians explled many Jews to Persia. After 5 years of Jewish authonomist control over Jerusalem and the entire land.
The Persians allowed the Byzants troops to aprroch Jerusalem and to attack and kill the Jewish garrison near the Golden gate,And later the troops swept the country and killed many Jews.(619)
In 625,The Bizants reoccupaied the entier area and granted amnesty to the Jews that supported the Perisains,But when the Byzantine emporer Hercelius came to Jerusalem ,He allowed the Christian to masscred the Jews ,And many of them were either massacered or fled to Egypt.
629:The Jews in khaybar,Not far from south Israel,Are being massacered and subdued by the Muslim leader Muhamad.
The battle of khaybar and the treaties that were agreed after it,Would be a precedent for provisions in Islamic law,Requiring the exaction
of tribute known as jizya from non-Muslim,and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslim into the collective property of the Muslim community.In return,Non Muslims were permited to practice their fate,And to be entiteled the Muslim states protection from outside aggressions,And exemption from military service.
630:Some cities in south Israel,Including Eilat and the Jewish city of Maqna singed peace treaty with Muhamad.