The Mamluk occupation(1260-1517)
1265-1271:The Mamluks,Led by Bibares, destroy all the coast cities beside Gaza.The entire coastal area until Acre would be deserted up until the 19 century.
Ceasria,Arsuf,Ashkelon,And later Jaffa and Acre too,Were destroyed and their port were sealed.The fact that the coastal area was deserted and in ruins and that its surrounding were malaria infested swamps was a major factor in the history of the land,And it would be later in the end of the 19 century a major factor the Jewish re-settlement of the land
from 1267 to 1268 baibares conquer Cesaria,Arsuf,Atlit and many of the Christian fortress in the land like Safed,the Bofur and the Monfor,he massacre the man and enslave the women and children.Yaffo is taken in 1268,80 years later the city would be describe as a cave that is guarded by an officer and a few soldiers.
1266:Bibres called the Jews to resettle Israel and especially Jerusalem but on the same time forbid non-Muslims to enter the holy places in Jerusalem and Hebron.
He also settled other Muslim soldiers like Kurds and Turkemans on the coast line ,In kakun and qara for example
the Mamluks administration syetem was that all the land was divided to land that was given to Mamluks officers to rule and get their profit from Mamluk soldiers and refugees from Syria and Iraq that fled from the Mongols.
all of the administration was in the hands of the Mamluks that spend their youth as slave-soldiers until they earned their position to be in charge of a fief.
1267:Rabbi Moshe ben nachman,A Sephardi rabbi,come to Israel,And restore the Jewish community in Jerusalem,despite the absence of defence walls.
He describe the land as abundant in ruins,the land is mainly deserted ,he writes to his brother,every place that is holier then the other,is more in ruins then the other.
The christian traveler felix fabri report the same situation in 1480,200 years later.he said the land could be fertile if there were only people to develop its land.
The rabbi mixed Sepharadi and Ashkenazi philosophy.In his famous commentary to the Bible,He was more favorite to Rashi then maimon.
He also wrote a commentary on the Talmud,And in other books he critic and answer other important rabbis.
He was famous for the Barselona debate, In 1263,In which he defeated the Christians accusations,Though the Christians expelled him from Spain.
In Israel he restored the Jewish synagogue in the Jewish curter in the old city,Which would be the only Jewish synagogues in Jerusalem for hundreds of years.he restored it with the help of the Jewish family of diers that the Crusaders allowed to dwell in the city despite the general ban on Jews from living in Jerusalem.(The Jews of Israel were famous for their skill in dieing textail for many years since the Hellenist period).
Rabbi Nachmans chief disciple was the famous kabalist,Rabbi Itshak of Acre,That is famous for clamming that the world age is more then 15 billion years,700 years before modern science would get to that conclusion
During that time the Sapharadi rabbi,Moses de leon publish the most important book in the Kabala ,the Zohar.which according to him it was found in a cave in the Galil and was actually written 1200 years before that by the important sage,Rabbi Yochanan ben zakai,But according to rabbi Isthak fo acre,De leon wrote the book himself.
This show what an important position did the Jewish community in Acre played in in the Jewish world and on the Kabala.
1289:Rabbi Shlomo patit of Acre ban the reading of the books of rabbi maimon.
1291:The last crusade city in Israel, Acre,Is captured by the Mamluks that destroy it and most of its big Jewish community spread all over the country. Though the Jews participated in the defence of the city,some of them were spared by the Muslims,Except the wise elders that are reported to be all killed to the last of them.
1295:The book Shaari zion is written in Hebron by one of rabbi Abulaifia scholers,Rabbi Shem tov.
THE 14 CENTURY
1300:The Mongols,Led by ghazan,Shortly take control over the country,Until they retreat after 5 month's.Some deserters from the mongol army were alowed to settle in the land,in the Atlit area.
1301:the Muslims in Israel forced the Jews to wear yellow bands.
1300:Avraham II,Succeeds his father as the Nagid until 1310.
1310:After avraham II the Nagid dies,His two sons,Salomo(Shmuel)and Joshua serve as the Nagid.
1313-1337:Rabbi Ishtori parchi ,Of France,Return to live in Israel.He was a physician and topographer and is famous for is brilliant work called,kaftor vaperach,A book that describe the land of Israel,And identified its old Biblical and Talmudic period towns.
His main companion was rabbi Baruch of Jerusalem
He was a good friend of the Nagid at that time,Rabbi Shmuel,which was rabbi Maimons sons grandson.
In his book which was written in Hebrew,That is based on 7 years of traveling in every single settlement in the land,He identified 180 places mention in the Bible.
Ishtori also report on the poor condition of the Jews in the land*:If a Jew is in debt to a non-Jew,Like from a loan or from the the pol tax and other taxes that the Muslim impose on Jews under their control annually,The poor that have nothing to pay is arrested until he is ransomed by his brothers,Or beaten to death with a rod.And this is why there is not a higher Mitsva(good deed)then ransoming the abductants and all of the people of Israel are ordered to participate in it*
1322:rabbi Ishtori publish his 700 pages master work,kaftor vaperach in Jerusalem
1337:Rabbi Yaakov hilo return to live in Israel.He describe Jerusalem with big Jewish community from france,That study Tora day and night.He also describe old towns in Judea populated with a few Jews, Like Eitam,Halhul,and in Hebron he found many Jews ,Many of then work in the glass and wool industry,And pray day and night in the synagoug.In Arab(towns name) near Hebron he found a few Jewish shepherd.
In the coastle area he found Gamzu,With many Jews in it.In Ramla he also found many Jews.He also report on rich Jews in Yafo,Though the city is mainly destroyed.
He also found Jews in Geva and Shilo north of Jerusalem,And in Nablus.He also found some Jews in Cesaria,And many more in Haifa,
He report on many dystroyed Jewish towns in the Galil,Though he found small communities that dwell near important graves of old sages,Like in Tiberia,Sachnin,And Tsipori.he also describe a very big Jewish community in Safed, And in Gush halev,And Sasa.
He also report that many Jews that escaped from France and Germany lived in Haifa.
1348:the black plague hit israel and many poeple in the cities perish.the nomad Bedouin used that opportunity to plunder the fildes and take control over the roads:
According to the reports,all the main cities were harmd,and every settelment that had a standing water supply was desserted,in many cases peremently.In april 1348,about 22,000 people died from the plauge in the Gaza area.
its interesting that Muslim reporters about the plage describe the plauge in Ramla and Gaza as plaug in towns in Syria,or a-sham,which is show how for Muslims at that time,the land wasnt a different part of Syria.
1349:The Jews of Jerusalem and Hebron flee the city fearing a Bedouin invasion.
1350:A big Ashkenazi Jewish grope led by rabbi Beilshtian settled in Jerusalem.From that time and on,With the black death in Europe and the horrible massacre of Jews that followed it,Many European Jews return to live in Israel,In 1400 the Ashkenazim bought a yard and in it a synagogue and a yeshiva.
The folowers of rabbi Isthak halevi beilshtain called themself *the hopeful* and focused of the study of the kabala,And in Jersualem studied from the Sapharadi Jews many of the kabala secrets that were unfamilar to the Jews in Ashkenaz.
From his scholars there is rabbi Avraham Levi and rabbi Menachem ben meir zion and after them rabbi shimon ben shmuel.
Some Jewish comunities in Austria and Germany collected donations especialy for them.
1355:The Nagid is David II,That would later move to Damascus.
1391:The oppression of the Jews in Spain drive many of then to return to Israel,And they dwell in Jerusalem,Gaza,Hevron, And Safed.
THE 15 CENTURY
1400:The Mongols invade the near east again, By Timurlang.The Mongols conquer Syria,And massacre the inhabits of Damascus,Among then many Jews.Many refugees flee to south to Israel and settled in it.The Mongols retreat in 1405.
1415;The last Nagid in Cairo,A decedent of the rabbi Maimon,Move to Syria, And the Nagid position is replaced by rich Jews from Egypt.
this lack of a specific leading personality that its autority is generaly accepted is one of the reasons why the Jewish communty in Jerusalem
got into some serious financial trubles that coused great sufering to its Jews up until the 20 century.
The last Nagid,david II,Was also a physician.
1427:The Jews and Christians argue about the ownership over Mount Zion.For the Jews,It is king Davids grave,And for the Christians it’s the place where the *last super* took place.Eventually,The Mamluks prevent from both Jews and Christians to enter the place and in 1452 it become a Muslim mosque.
As a result of the conflict over the ownership over the Mounth Zion,the christian pope,Martinus VI In 1428,Forbid any Christian ship from transposrting Jews to the land of Israel.however it seem that during that time,from 1428 until 1485 more Jews from Italy and Germany came to live in Israel then before.some of them used Franch or Genoen ships,but many traveled on the Denova river or trough Poland until the black sea and from there to Israel.
1441:A famine in Jerusalem and the poor condition of the city,And the heavy taxes,Forced 100 Jewish families from Jerusalem to live elsewhere,Mainly in Gaza and Egypt.
1452:The Muslims in Jerusalem decied to exeple the Jews from Jerusalem and Hevron.After many bagging and alot a bribe that was payed,a fine of 100,000 golden florin was imposed all over the Jews of Israel inorder to cancel the expel,From which 10,000 was payed by the Jews of Jerusalem.The elders of Jerusalem had to borrow money from their Muslim and Christian negibores in very high intrest,and very soon had to sell allmost all of the property that the community had,And large amount of items that were donated to the community from Jews from far away community like Poland and Russia too.
1470:Rabbi Saadia adani return from Yemen to Israel,And settle in Safed.
1474:The Muslims in Jerusalem destroyed the Jewish synagogue in the Jewish curter.The Jews were allowed to rebuild it,After paying a lot of ransom and bribe to the Mamluk clerks,But after 120 years,The Ottomans will destroy the synagogue, Because building news synagogues is against the Omar laws,From 715.The Jews suffering from the heavy debts they have were only resulted in the 19 century.
An Ashkenazi messenger name rabbi Moshe twentyfour was sent to varius communities in north Italy to collect the money for the Jews of Jerusalem.Rabbi Yosef kolon,that would later be the head of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem when the Ottoamn conquer the land,helped him.
1479: The Bedouins attack Jerusalem and even enter the temple mount .
1481:The Bedouins attack Ramla and its Jews.
1482:Rabbi Meshulam of Voltera visit in Israel. He described the trade lines from Egypt to Gaza,The only remaining port in Israel,And how the Mamluks secure it,Because of the Bedouin raids. He report that movement from one place to another in the country was only possible in big caravans of over a 1000 people.He also report how being dress and act like an Arab is essential for security reasons,Since Jews and foreigners are being attacked and mugged.
He tells about the good wine of Gaza,Which was made only by Jews.
1485-87:The olive oil ordeal.The Mamluk rulers force all of the inhabitants of Jerusalem and Hebron to buy olive oil from Nablus in expensive price,While the late to pay are arrested and flogged.The ordeal repeat itself two years later in Gaza and Ramla as well,up until 1495,in which even Muslims were forced to pay dubble for the praise of soup and sugar,unless they were beaten to death.
This event is the reason why some Jewish families fled Hevron and muved to Egypt
During that time rabbi Yosef demontie*the parnas*(the provider) the Ashkeanzi Jew from Venice come to Jerusalem and very quicly help the community to get better.
1485:Rabbi Ovadia of Bertinoro, also an Ashkenazi Jew from Italy, travel in Israel.He was appointed the leader of the Jews in Jerusalem, He also dwelt in Hevron for a while. Before he came there was a dispute between the elders to the Nagid rabbi Natan,And Natan fled to Egypt.
He met Jews in Gaza,Hevron,In Jerusalem he find many of the Jews that were forced to convert to Christianity in Spain,the Maranus or Conversos as they were called in Europe.And now return to the Israeli fate.
In Gaza he is entertained by the Ashkenazi rabbi Moses of Pargue that moved from Jerusalem to Gaza after being harassed by the Arabs
He describe though the poorness of the Jews in Jerusalem and their defenselessness against the Muslims authorities. in one time, a Muslim killed his own mother,And after saying that he was drunk,The court fined the Jewish community for *selling the wine*,With no proof or connection.
He also mention the fear and the insecurity in the roads and the Bedouin constant attacks.
1492:In the end of the Mamluk period,And just before the great wave a Jews that will return to live in Israel from Spain and Portugal,The Jewish community was led by rabbi Itshak,And the Sepharadim rabbi was David shusham,And the Ashkenazim rabbi was Yosef kolon.
1500:The Nagid in Egypt,Which is the leader of the Jews in the near east,Is rabbi Natan's son,Itshak sholal.He will financialy support many of the Jews returning from the exile in Spain and Portugal and will help them to become the dominant society of Israel .He held his position until the Ottomans canceled the Nagid position in 1517. He died later in a plague in 1526.
He was the founder of the famous master work of rabbi Ishtori,kaftor vaperach
Rabbi Sholal also encourage other Jewish scholars from Egypt and to return to live in Jerusalem and Safed
1509:The famous kabalist,Rabbi Albotini come to Jerusalem from Portugal.
1513:Rabbi Avraham zekut ,The famous Jewish scientist that helped Christopher Columbus to discover America,Return to live in Jerusalem from Spain.
How ever,As the Mamluk period came to an end,Already in 1513,The security situation in the cities in Israel was very bad,And the Jews suffered allot from that.Zakuto,Together with another important Kabala sage,Abraham halevi,Are recorded as the most impoverished persons In Jerusalem.
This poor situation is also comfirmed by another Christian traveler,Matrin kevetnik, from 1495,that report that the Jews and Christian in Israel are forced to dress like beggers,and they are not allowed to wear any good close,and even use silver or copper dishes in their houses.
Rabbi david ben Zimara that would later be the great leader of the Jewish community in Egypt,And then later the leader of the Jews in Jerusalem,Also fled the city at that time to Egypt