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2010年9月28日火曜日

The first Ottoman period(1517-1769)

The Ottoman occupation(1517-1917)

1516-17
:The Ottoman empire conquered Israel,Syria,Egypt together with all of the Middle east,And encourage many of the Jews that were expelled in Spain to settle in Israel and in Jerusalem.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA21&dq=Bayezid+I+jews&hl=ja&ei=i3QlTJuKMoXRcdyx9O8C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Bayezid%20I%20jews&f=false

1517:The Small Jewish community in Hevron is destroyed in an Arab riot.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA243&dq=MALKIEL+ASHKENAZI+HEBRON&hl=ja&ei=5cWLTPKbJ4X0vQP_4owY&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=HEBRON&f=false
(page 24)

The Jewish community in Safed suffer from the Ottoman-Mamluk supporters battles and many are slain.Many of them fled naked to the nearby villages.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=POPPULATION&f=false

(page 97)

1517:Rabbi Yaakov berav from Spain,Move from Jerusalem to Safed.Until 1546 he will study from many of the important rabbis.He was a very bright rabbi,And already in the age of 18 was appointed a rabbi in Spain.

1518:Rabbi Moshe of Trani,Become the leader of the big Jewish community in Safed.,Many of then are Jews exiled from Spain.

1520:The Ottomans rebuild the walls of Jerusalem.this change the situation in Jerusalem,from a very vournable and un secured town during the Mamluk period,to a safe city to live.this encourage many Jews,and Muslim too,to settle in it.

1520:Rabbi Yehiel ashkenazi move back to Israel from Italy.he become the leaders of the Ashkenazi Jews in Jerusalem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA152&dq=ibn+susan&hl=ja&ei=3Kq9TNzwMY6yuAOk98Eq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ibn%20susan&f=false
(PAGE 152)

1521:Rabbi Moshe basula visit in Israel.In his writing he report on the big Jewish city of Safed,And its strong wool and textile industry.,

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA160&dq=jacob+ibn+habib&hl=ja&ei=3XslTIaFFY-lcdiZ2McC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=safed&f=false




1523:-Shlomo molko,A Jew in origin that his parents were forced to convert to Christianity in Spain,And he was burn a Christian,Return to Judaism,After meeting the mysteries David hareuveni,And fearing Christian persecution,He fled to the Ottoman empire and travel around in Israel,Promising Jews that the Geula(liberation) will come in 1540.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA157&dq=DAVID+HAREUVENI&hl=ja&ei=QUOaTO6jBIOIvgP3goXdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=DAVID%20HAREUVENI&f=false
(PAGE 157)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA97&dq=MURAD+III+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=gQ-eTKTADIOYvAP6qbyqDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 189)
Hareuveni was probably the first Jew after the middle ages that openly talked about the re-establishing of the Jewish state in Israel and the return of all the exiled Jews to their homeland Israel.
How ever,When he met rabbi Shollal in Jerusalem in 1523 the rabbi didnt belived Harehuvenis mystic stories about a far away Jewish kingdom of the tribe of Reuven,And send letters to communities all over the world warning them from David hareuveni
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 24)
Though he was accepte  by the Pope at that time,In Germany,That was under the control of the Spanish emporer,Charles V,He was arrested and togehter with David hareuveni is executed by fire.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=714&letter=M&search=shlomo molko


1524:Rabbi Yosef Caro,Write in Safed,His famous book,Shulchan aruch,The most important halacha book in the Israeli fate,That base its decision on comparison on every subject on three decrees:
Rabbi Maimon(1138-1205)rabbi Elfasi(1013-1103)and rabbi Asher(1259-1327).

Rabbi yosef caro was considered a high authority not just in Israel and the near east,But by Jews far away in France and Poland:

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=188&letter=C&search=yosef caro

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=paltiel+hanagid&source=bl&ots=1aATDktqk6&sig=Q69sG8Pr655o-LWtNDwoAiBB81c&hl=ja&ei=8R8eTO3xKIOeceyUhPUM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 227)

1535:Rabbi Shlomo alkabets,write in Safed,the famous Shabat song:Lecha dodi.
He lives up until 1584.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=NFFqidUW6esC&pg=PA88&dq=The+Secret+Teaching+of+R.+Shlomo+Halevi+Alkabetz&hl=ja&ei=enslTK7-Ds-wcYnuwMEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false


1536: Rabbi Yosef caro become the great rabbi of Safed.He will lead until 1575.
With his help,The Jews established a big fortres in Safed for the protection against the local Arabs.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=safed&hl=ja&ei=IVOOTOHoMIHUvQOlv8XnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=poppulation&f=false
(PAGE 60)

1538: Rabbi Berav of Safed ordinate new rabbis, To serve as an official religious leadership of the Jews in Israel,Just like the Sanhedrin were,In replace of the Nagid position.
This move anger many of the rabbis in Jerusalem, Especially rabbi Levi ben haviv.
Rabbi birab ordinate rabbi caro, Rabbi Trani, Rabbi Sagis, Rabbi Shalom,Rabbi
Kordovo, And rabbi Curiel.They will later ordinate their scholars as rabbis them self.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=242&letter=J&search=jerusalem#936
One of the main the aims of the rabbi Berab plan to renew the ordination of rabbis in Israel,The Beit din(the court),Beside the clear ambition to have an orginised leadership for the Jewish people in the holly land to replace the Nagid position,Was to take care of the problem of the Maranus.Many  many Jews in Spain and Portugal were expeled from it while many other were forced to accept Christianity just in order to stay a live,And once they had an oppurtunity to flee from Spanish control they escape and openly return to practice the father traditions.How ever,The acceptance of a different fate other then the Israeli fate was punishable with divine excommunication,That only lashes can erased that sin,But in order to deceid how many lashed each person have to get in order to be clean from his sin,Only a beit din(Jewish court)can decide on that,And this is why rabbi Berab wanted to renew the Jewish court
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 29)
The argument between those who opposed the ordination to those who supported it continued without any side giving up,But *thanks* to much greater problems like the continues occupation and oppresion of the Jews and their poverty and over taxation that was imposed on them in Israel,Very soon the Jews had to put that  a side and work togehter

1538:rabbi Isaschar ben mordechai is the leader of the north african Jews in Safed.he moved back to Israel in the 30s,and moved from Jerusalen to Safed,in which he stayed until his death.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA152&dq=ibn+susan&hl=ja&ei=3Kq9TNzwMY6yuAOk98Eq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ibn%20susan&f=false
(page 152)


1539:The Ottomans finish the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bWjwcoSdoiAC&pg=PA139&dq=ottoman+empire+rule+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=8HIlTO_wL8PIca3jocEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=walls%20of%20jerusalem&f=false
during that year,the ottomans count the population in the land and a big growth in the Jewish population in Hebron and Gaza ,nablus and kfar kana.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=halhul&f=false
(page 24)

1541:Rabbi Levi ben haviv,The leader of Jerusalem,Died.His major scholar,Rabbi Caster,Succeed him in leading the Jews in Jerusalem.shortly after that rabbi shlomo shirilio succeed him until 1558.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 30)

1548:The Ashkenazi rabbi of Jerusalem is kalamn kalonymus of Brisk.
From his name it can be learned that he was a descended of the famous kalonnymus family,That was invited by the Frankish kings to move from Italy to Germany,And was the base from which the Ashkenazi Jews grow(during the 9 century).
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=E2_ag8xGWMQC&pg=PA131&dq=kolel+warsaw+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=zymOTNSaC4aavgP_ovnnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 126)

1542:Rabbi Moshe kordovo of Safed developed a new system in the Jewish mysticism,The Kabala.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA160&dq=jacob+ibn+habib&hl=ja&ei=3XslTIaFFY-lcdiZ2McC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=Moses%20ben%20Jacob%20Cordovero&f=false

1553:Rabbi David ben zimra returned to Jerusalem from Egypt.He was one of the most important rabbis in the near east,But the Arabs in Jerusalem harassed him until he left to Safed,Where he was welcomed with great respect by rabbi caro too and died later in 1573.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA31&dq=jerusalem+jews+first+ashkenazi&hl=ja&ei=N0OOTOeHGpG6vQPBy-DnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20jews%20first%20ashkenazi&f=false
(page 30)


1555:Rabbi Israel najara is born in Safed.He will transfer famous Mediterranean songs into famous prayers and belief songs.

He lived in Safed,Gaza,And later in Syria until 1628:

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Israel%20ben%20Moses%20Najara&f=false


1555:The famous Anacona boycott occurred.Don yosef nasi,A Portugalian Jew that was forced to convert to Christianity,Move to the Ottoman empire and use his power and wealth to stop the execution of Jews that were forcibly converted to Christianity,And after being caught observing Judaism,Were convicted with heresy.The rabbis of Safed,Through their colleges in Tesaloniki,Supported him.Especialy rabbi Caro.
The boycott of Anacona port failed and the Jews were executed by the Christians.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA236&dq=don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=T4AlTMy_Noi-cfL6tb0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false


1556:The Ottoman  sultan is protecting the Jews in Israel from ilegal opression by the Muslims in Israel.
 He recive a compliant that Jews  in Jerusalem,Safed and Tiberias are being falsely charge with coursing of the Muslim fate and their children are being threatened to be forced to convert to Islam.The oppresors ,in order to extort money from the Jews ,both complian on the Jews and both serve as *witneses* to the Jews *disrespect*.The Jews are also forced to evacuet their houses for army units,and are being forced to work in forced labor ,including in the Jews holy days,lead them to exile or forced labor,and take away their food.The sultan was very angry to here that.
On another occasion the sultan hear that Jews that come to pilgrim in Jerusalem,Hevron,and nabi Samuel,are oppresed by the soldiers.
The officers charge the Jews exepensive and ilegal passing tax,beating the passengers and randomly arrest them for no reason.
The sultan send a letter to the governors of occupied Israel asking them to stop this.But as history shows,those sort of petty oppresion of the Jews in Israel were common up until the end of the 19 century.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA220&dq=%D7%99%D7%94%D7%95%D7%93%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%90%D7%9E%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9F+%D7%9B%D7%94%D7%9F+%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%A1%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%98%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=1dI-TYzTEIyuuQOj5YGKAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%D7%99%D7%94%D7%95%D7%93%D7%99%D7%9D%20%D7%90%D7%9E%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9F%20%D7%9B%D7%94%D7%9F%20%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%9D%20%D7%94%D7%A1%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%98%D7%9F&f=false
page 219

1558-1564:The leader of the Jews in Jerusalem is rabbi David ben zimra,Though the actually authority Israel is in Safed,Where the majority of the Jewish population is.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA142&dq=ibn+zimra&hl=ja&ei=EVwnTOfbJ8uHkQWrr_WUAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ibn%20zimra&f=false



1564:Don Yosef nasi and Dona Gratsia nasi,Recived the Ottomans permission to rebuild the city of Tiberia in north Israel,Which laid in its ruins after the Mamluk occupation.They settle Jews in it and planned to establish a Jewish autonomy in Tiberia.
The Jewish community of Cori,Italy for example,Sold all its belonging and marched to Tiberia,Thinking that the days of Jewish self governing in Israel had returned.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA108&dq=sheikh+ul+islam+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=7feETIfDBI6EvAPkhbHBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tiberias&f=false

The command of Tiberia is handled by Yosef ben aderet that also build walls to city,And the Ottoman sultan payed him to build the city every day 6o Akce every day.

Though Jews do settle in the city,The political situation change after Don yosefs death,And the Ottomans attitude become less encourage.

The city would later be destroyed by Arab tribes wars in 1670.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA236&dq=don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=T4AlTMy_Noi-cfL6tb0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false


http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA108&dq=sheikh+ul+islam+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=7feETIfDBI6EvAPkhbHBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=don%20josef&f=false


1566:Rabbi Vidas teach Kabala in Hevron.

1566:Don Yosef is in charge of 12 islands near Greece.

1570:Don Yosef sign the trade contract between France to the Ottomans,The contract was in Hebrew.

1570:The Jewish population Safed grow and become as big as the Muslim community,Around 5000 Jews.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=POPPULATION&f=false
(PAGE 98)

1570:Rabbi Itshak loria ,Move to Safed from Egypt.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=vidas&f=false


Born to Ashkenazi father and Sapharadi mother in from Jerusalem.In Egypt was involved in maintaining the trade and tax.He studied from the famous Jerusalem rabbi,Rabbi Besalel ashkenazi, And rabbi Coriel of Safed and developed a new technique in the Kabala,That would soon replaced the Kabala of rabbi Kordovo.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=luria&f=false
His dougther meried rabbi Yosef Caro's son
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 26)



1570: A war between the Ottomans and the Venetian(the Lepanto war) put Don yosef position null,And his plan to establish a Jewish autonomy in Tiberia are dropped.

1570:The Arabs,led by abu supin, forbid Jews from entering the grave of the prophet Samuel(that ordains the first king of Israel,Saul).
The Jews use to celebrate the Shavuot festival every year there since the Crusaders time.
How ever it seem that Jews contiune to pilgrim to the grave a few years later after paying a tribute to the governor
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=samuel&f=false
(page 80)

1572:Rabbi Loria dies,But his major student,Rabbi Haim Vital publish and teach his Kabala teachings all over Israel and Egypt and Syria up until his death in 1620.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=vital&f=false
.
1575:After rabbi Caro died,The great rabbi of Safed is rabbi of Trani.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=APSOv3uEu3UC&pg=PA184&dq=moses+di+trani&hl=ja&ei=LJwlTP-VHM7XccPDke4C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=moses%20di%20trani&f=false


1576:The first print house in the Ottoman empier is established by Jews in Safed.The first book that was printed was in Hebrew, rabbi Yom Tov tsahalons book.

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/chronology/seventeenth.html


1576:A 1000 Jews from Safed are expelled to Cyprus.Later the Sultan himself canceled the order.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA293&dq=tiberias+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=24ElTKTwD8urcdXv5MEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false
This episode show how for the Muslim lords of areas in the near east under the Ottoman occuopation saw the Jews as nothing more then a solid income source to the pocket of the local lord.
The Jews were not allowed to carry weapons so there was no fear that they would ever rebel no matter how they would be oppresed.
The Jews had to pay the Jiziya and Haraj taxes other wise any Muslim  could kill them without punishment.
The Jews in Israel were always saved by their brothers in other communities in far away lands,so the local Mulsim rulers knew that they could extort more and more money.the episode with Cyprus was that the ruler over there wanted to assure that he would enjoy a solid income source just from the heavy tax on the Jews regardless to the actual economic power of the area,and was very surprised that the sultan himself interveine.


1577:The Jews of Safed,The city the biggest Jewish population in Israel at that time,Are terrorised by the Ottoman govenor,Together with the local Arabs.He forced them to work on Shabat.They attack Jews and kill some of them,And then arrest many of them and flogged each one of them many times and demdend huge amounts of money from them.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA200&dq=al+qazzaz+jew&hl=ja&ei=U4CoTJWIKI2gvgOGiK3pDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 298)

1579:The Ottoman sultan,Murad III,Order the excution of all the Jews in the empier.Only after the importent minister Solomon ashkenazi convice him to cancel the order the Jews are saved.
Murad III's mother was a Jewish women that was forced to accept Islam,And he had many Jewish advisers like Solomon ben yahish that helped the Otoman to form an alinace with Engalnd,So maybe only his addiction Opium could explain his infantil actions.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(page 338)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA97&dq=MURAD+III+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=gQ-eTKTADIOYvAP6qbyqDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MURAD%20III%20JEWS%20DECREE&f=false
(page 104)


1580:After rabbi of Trani dies,Rabbi Gelanti become the great rabbi of Safed,until 1612.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&pg=PA58&dq=moshe+gelante&hl=ja&ei=faIlTPSGOYedcdCEoNQC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

1585:The leasold of Tiberia is given the Solomon ben yahish,Also a Jew that returned to Judesam after being baptised by force in Europe.His son jJcob administrait it for him with great sucess.
http://www.publishersrow.com/The_Sephardi_Legacy_II/eBookshukBooks/shid1_bid3188_fid31_pid1_clpg1_pg110


1585:Rabbi Haim vital escape from the harasments of the Ottoman governor Abu sipin and leave Jerusalem
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 45)


1586:The Ottomans close down the Jewish synagogue in Jerusalem.It is the same synagogue that rabbi Nachman builded in 1267,And was destroyed by the Muslims in 1474,And a year later rebuild with autorozation of the Mamluk Sultan.
The Ottomans saw the rebuilding of a synagoug as a breach of the Omar laws.,From 715.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA293&dq=tiberias+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=24ElTKTwD8urcdXv5MEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=FsDKlrLai3IC&pg=PA278&dq=NACHMANIDES+SYNAGOGUE+1586&hl=ja&ei=BwqnTI3KN42MvQOhpYXPDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NACHMANIDES%20SYNAGOGUE%201586&f=false
(page 278)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=gJsxXIZvjcsC&pg=PA25&dq=NACHMANIDES+SYNAGOGUE+1586&hl=ja&ei=0AqnTI_uJ4LuvQONotG9DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=NACHMANIDES%20SYNAGOGUE%201586&f=false
(page 25)
It seem that the confiscation of the Jewish syangogue  was very violent and many Jews fled the city,abu sipin ordered the confiscation,just like he did in the 1570S in the grave of samuel.
http://books.google.co.il/books?id=jwBXAAAAMAAJ&q=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&dq=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=yjinTKK2KYeEvAPVpKW6DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ
http://books.google.co.il/books?id=YqILAAAAIAAJ&q=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&dq=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=oTqnTKb2J4O8vgOEgrHADA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA

http://books.google.co.il/books?id=a6ttAAAAMAAJ&q=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&dq=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=RjunTLryMousvgPb7rX_DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwATgK
(page 505)
1588:Rabbi Besalel ashkenazi return to live in Jerusalem from Egypt and lived there until 1596.He was a student of rabbi Ben Zimra and a techer for rabbi Loria.He his famouse for his methos of studying the Talmud,As it caled the Mishbazot.He was addored by both the Ashkenazim and the Sepharadim,And even the Ottomans rercognize him as the sole spokeman for the Jewish community.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 33)


1589:Rabbi Shlomo Adani finish his full comentery of the Mishna,After 30 years of work.He retrun to Israel from Yemen in 1571 with his family,Which was famous in its wisdom in Hevron.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA33&dq=shlomo+adani&hl=ja&ei=96MlTPKyJI3JcZXNtc0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=shlomo%20adani&f=false

1593:Rabbi Moshe Alshich died.he was a student of rabbi Yosef karo,and the teacher of rabbi Haim vital. came back to Israel in 1535 and was a very skilled preacher in Safed.he is the one that established the Meir baal hannes donation fund,to promot donation from Jews all over the world to the Jews in Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=SAFED&hl=ja&ei=R7G9TLiRLomKvgO6181E&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ALSHICH&f=false
(page 56)
1599:The situation of the Jews in Jerusalem is bad.Many died out of hunger.600 of 700 Jewish widowers in Jerusalem died.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(PAGE 338)

1599:The old Jewish towns near Safed,Like Ein zitim,Biria and Meiron are abandoned by their Jewish inhabitants because of the Arab violence.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=halhul&f=false
(PAGE 28)

THE 17 CENTURY

1600
:From letters between rabbi Gedaliah cordevero(son of moshe cordevero) and Itshak de trani(son of moshe de trani) we can learn that a Jewish community still exist in Eglon,In trans jordan
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(PAGE 36)
And also in Jenin,In the north Samaria
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=COMING+TO+THE+LAND+16CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=BtGtTPzhKoe4vQPgqsHzBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 33)

 1600:Rabbi Avraham Azulai return from Morocco to Hevron.He will also live in Gaza and Jerusalem and teach the Lorian Kabala until 1634.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA33&dq=shlomo+adani&hl=ja&ei=96MlTPKyJI3JcZXNtc0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=avraham%20azulai&f=false


1603:The Ottomans appointed an Arab family to govern Jerusalem,The Fruk.They oppress the Jews very harshly.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=FAROUK&f=false



1610:The country is being under the control of the governor of Lebanon,Fachar a din until 1633.


1621:The ruler of Jerusalem is Muhamad ben faruk.He increas his oppression of the Jews.

1622:The famous rabbi of Poland,Rabbi Yeshayau Halevi Horovits,Return to Jerusalem and his welcomed by the Jews with great celebration.
Horovits served and judge in many Jewish communities in Eeast Europe,Like Pragua and Lublin.His famous book,The two tables of the covenanat,Is a very important book in the Israeli fate,And it also preised the and encourage Jews to return from the exile to their fatherland
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 52)

1623:The ruler of Lebanon,Is attacked by an Arab coalition of the Gaza governer,The Raduan clan,The Jerusalem governer,The faruk clan,And the Lajun governor,The Tarabay clan,And is defeated in the battle of Yazur near Yaffo.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA5&dq=fakhar+a+din+lebanon&hl=ja&ei=l6olTKn_IZSjca_IwKoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false




1625:The oppression of the Jews in Jerusalem reach to a peak when the hedonist governer of Jerusalem,Muhamad ben faruk,Arrest the main rabbis of Jerusalem,Including rabbi Horovis,For ransom and tourcher them.

The Jews find them self helpless and the governer of Damascus,That suppopse to be incharge over Jerusalem as well dont help them.They are forced to borrow a lot of money from the Arabs and Christians with big interest in order to free the rabbis from prison.The governor rule until 1638,But the news on the injustice dosent left unknown to the Ottomans,And in 1657,They replace all the local Arab governors with Syrian families that will rule from Gaza.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=yeshaya%20halevi%20horowitz%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 88)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(PAGE 342)
1:Fisrt,faruk overthrown the mayor of Jerusalem in 1625,With 300 merceneris.He oppressed and arreseted every one he wished to just in order to have their money and property.The kadi fled from the city,And the new kadi was delied.In one month he extort 3000 grush from the Jews.

2:Later,Faruks brother in law,Aga,Demanded imidiatly 5000 grush from the Jews,After many begging he *agrreed* to give them one night.But the Jews simply couldnt get that kind of money,He agrred to get half of it imidiatly,And pressur them harshly to pay the rest.

3:A month later,The new kadi came to Jerusalem,And Faruk bribed him and show him a fake order from the sultan that order the expel of most of the Jews from the city,The Jews panickly payed huge sums of money to Faruk and tot he kadi and other officials to overlook that order.

4:A month later Aga called for one of the rabbis to come to him.The rabbi's son came instead of him together with another elder rabbi.Both of them were publicly flogged almsot to death,And only after 2000 grush were promised to Aga he stopped.

5:On the summer of 1625,The governor of the province from Damascus called Faruk to come with Aga to see him,And Faruk lelt another brother in law of him, Called Ottoaman to be in charge.He also demanded a 1000 grush from the Jewish leader rabbi Shimon cohen,Later agreed to only 500 .

6:In the end of the summer,The Jews felt safe enough to go out and pray in the synagogue in shabat,But they were soon attacked by Ottoman's soldiers and 15 of their main rabbis were arrested.The Jews had to find a way to ransom their precies rabbis,And they  had to borow money from their Arab nighbors,Who only agrred to lend them moey,If the Jews would agreed to pay 50 % intrest rate.
In two weeks 9 were relises,And until september all were relised.In sum,20,000g rush were payed to Ottoman,
The governor of Damascus send a captain to see what Ottoman his doing, That captain demand that the Jews would be relised and their money to be returned,But Ottoman scared the captain away and later bribed him not to tell anything bad about him to the governor,The Jews had to sell their sphare close in order to pay the money need to relise the last 6 rabbis.

7:The compliants about Farouk become aware to the Ottoman authoroties and he was arrested,But when escaped from jail,He returned to Jerusalem,Got rid of his brothers in law,And start again to arrestes and flogged Jews.He arrest the two of the high rabbis,Rabbi Yaakob ben avraham and rabbi Itshak gaon and flogged them in public.How ever the Jews simply didnt have anything to give Farouk for ransom,Beside kitchen pots.

8:After that,the governor of Damascus treattend to attack Farouk if he wont leave the city,And he fled the city in december.The Jews in the city remain in a debt of 50,000 grush to the Arabs,paying an extra 10,000 every year on intrest.

1630:The Jews is Jerusalem are faced with an almost massacre by the Arabs.A rumor that Jews killed a Muslim boy in Egypt angried the Arabs and they start beating every Jew they come across with,But the kadi convice them to wait until the issue is invetigated and then they could *legaly* massacre the Jews.The kadi of course extort 5000 grush rom the Jews for his *mercy* and in the investigation it turns out that not only that the boy is alive and not dead,But he is a Jewish boy that was kidnaped by the Muslims and was forced to accept Islam.He ran away from his adopting Muslim family to Egypt,And from there the evil rumor started.Once this is cleared and the boy come to Jerusalem,the kadi anult the decree to kill all the Jews,And the Jews celebrat a very happy Passover
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PR1&dq=ehere+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=8eKpTLq6CIOmvgPjtsjdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=masscre&f=false
(PAGE 94)

1640:The city of Tiberia is destroyed and its Jews are scatetred.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA15&dq=rebuilding+of+tiberias+1742&hl=ja&ei=1GqOTIvRMY3cvQOJzoToBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=rebuilding%20of%20tiberias%201742&f=false
(page 14)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA15&dq=rebuilding+of+tiberias+1742&hl=ja&ei=1GqOTIvRMY3cvQOJzoToBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=tiberias%20destroyed&f=false
(page 148)

1642:Rabbi Yaakov tsemach come from Damascus to live in Jerusalem.In Damascus he was on the few scholars that were chosen by rabbi Haim vitals's son to study the teaching of the Kabala,As vital accepted it from rabbi Loria.How ever,In Jerusalem,He discover a hidden treasure,Thousend of paper wok writen  by rabbi Vital,That were unknown to Vitals son.By arrenging the pages that were in diaray,He promised that the secret and valuabale knowledg could be brought to future generations
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 66)

1643: Rabbi Avraham Azulai died.he moved back to Israel in 1600 from Moroco,And lived in Hevron,untlil a plague in 1619 forced him to move to Jerusalem,another plague there forced him to move to Gaza,where he wrote his book chesed lehavraham.he was a famose kabalist that studied from rabbi Haim vital and his son and also with rabbi Yaakov tsemach.he lived a long time in Hebron until his death.
He was the grandfather of rabbi Haim yosef azulai,the famos kabalist and messenger that colected donations in Europe for the poor Jews of Jerusalem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA73&dq=avraham+azulai+hebron&hl=ja&ei=Rqa9TODxGIe4vgOdgpFP&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=avraham%20azulai%20hebron&f=false
(page 73)

1658:Rabbi Israel Yaakov hagiz, Return from Moroko to Jerusalem,And together with rabbi Gelanti II they establish the big Beit Yaakov Yeshiva . They will later would object and fight against the Shabtati movemnet.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 75)
Hagiz arange the establishment of the Beit yaakov yeshiva,In which many important sholars would learn.He arranged that a generous family from Livorno ,the vega family would support the yeshiva
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA5&dq=fakhar+a+din+lebanon&hl=ja&ei=l6olTKn_IZSjca_IwKoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(PAGE 25)



1660:The rulers of Gaza fight against the rulers of lebanon,And destroy Tiberia.the Jews of Tiberia move to Safed and other places,Though Safed itself was destroyed  too by the Arabs on the same time, And its Jews were massacred.
It seem that right after that many Jews returned to Safed,Including many polish Jews that fled the Hemlinistki grand massacre.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA149&dq=tiberias+in+the+17+century&hl=ja&ei=tbIlTOe7CNSOcZKntK0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20in%20the%2017%20century&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(page 345)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=iKBwZ9Y8j8QC&pg=PA49&dq=safed+1660&hl=ja&ei=eR-eTMy7GoOgvgPFibGMDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFEQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=safed%201660&f=false
(page 49)

1660:Its seem that during that time ,Gaza was the biggest Jewish city in the land,Just lIke it was in most of the Mamluk period
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 73)

1665:The Shabtai movement case.A Jew name Shabtai tsvi(1626-1674)proclaim himself as the Meshiac(the deliverer of Jews,A decedent of king David)for that reason is being excommunicate by the Jews of Greece and Turkey,Though he is being very appreciate by the Egyptian Jews, And send to deliver donations to the Jews of Israel.He is being met by a famous Kabala master in Gaza,Rabbi Natan of Gaza,That acknowlegd him as the Meshiach.

Though the Jews and the rabbis of Jerusalem object him and deny his claims,The Jews of Safed and Syria accept him with great excitement. The entier Jewish world,Read the letter sent to them by rabbi Natan,And they belive that the Meshiach has come.
zvi was so charizmatic that he even charmed the kadi of jerusalem (the kadi in jerusalem allways looked for away to hummiliat the jews)

After his supporters and opossesr wrestle in Turkey,He is was arrested by the Sultan.In his jail,He was visited by a rabbi from Poland,Rabbi Nechamia kohen,A Kabala specialist,That argued with him 3 days,And expose him to be a liar.

Fearing to be assasinat by Shabatis supporter,Kohen convert to Islam,And then blaim Shabati for planing a rebellion against the Sultan .The Sultan in his anger,Gives Shabati two options,To be executed or to convert to Islam.Shabati convert to Islam,And most of followres soon abondoned him,And return to seek forgivneSs for thier sins.

Only a few of his many many followers remain loyallowers remain loyal to him after his death in 1676,And most of them converted to Islam or Christianity.While the majority of Jews start to look at the Kabala with a more caution ,And limited the study of the Kabala to only over 40 years old people,One of the ideas from the Shbatai movement,Did become accepted and would be put into practice in later years,The idea that the return of the Jews to live independently in their homeland Israel,Will make the Geula(the apocalyptic fight victory of good over evil)closer.This will be continue in the Hasidut and Zionist movement.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=ZEBI&f=false
(PAGE 345)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=7lsVajEtaQ0C&pg=PA216&dq=DAVID+HAREUVENI&hl=ja&ei=6UCaTM7FFo3SuwOqnYSbDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=GAZA&f=false
(PAGE 234)

1674:Rabbi Gelante II, Lead the Jews of Jerusalem until 1689.After him,Hizkiya de silva will succed him
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 79)
He replaced rabbi Chagis after his death,And he took care if his son,Moshe Chagiz.
Gelantei was famouse for his leading of the memorial for the prophet Samuel every summer in the grave of samule north to Jerusalem.This annual event was one of the most important Jewish event in Israel,Egypt and Syria
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=WHEN+HEAVEN+TOUCHES+EARH&hl=ja&ei=eyqeTKmkH4GavgPstcC5DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(PAGE 80)
1689:Rabbi Moshe haviv succeed rabbi Gelanti in leading the Jews of Jerusalem,Since Hizkiya de silva,Gelanti's main scholar was sent to a long mission in Europe to raise donation to the Jewish communities in Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=WHEN+HEAVEN+TOUCHES+EARH&hl=ja&ei=eyqeTKmkH4GavgPstcC5DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(page 85)

1698: An epidemic kill many of inhabitants in the land,In Jerusalem,36 rabbis died
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 87)
THE 18 CENTURY

1700:More then 1000 Jews from Poland return to live in Jerusalem,Led by their rabbi,Rabbi Yehuda,Beliving that the Jews return to dwell freely in the land of Israel will bring the Geula faster.Their messenger buy land for them in Jerusalem to house them,With money that the Jewish communities in Poland donated,But since building new houses was forbidden to Jews,A lot of money was loaned to the Jews from the Arab in order to get the approval of the authorities.

But a few days after the arrival to Jerusalem,The old rabbi dies from the hard and long travel.The grope that was left leaderless,And being suspected as followers of the Shabatai movement,Recive almost no help from the Jews in jerusalem,Spread around some mix with the Jews in Jerusalem,Hevrom,Gaza and Safed,And left the debt matter undone,The Arabs of Jerusalem in their anger,Decreated that no Ashkernazi Jew would be allowed to dwell in Jerusalem ever since.The band would only be lifted in 1816,After the Tsoref family payed the debt.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=7lsVajEtaQ0C&pg=PA238&dq=yehuda+hachasid&hl=ja&ei=2LMlTNSuCJDRcYik6NEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=yehuda%20hachasid&f=false




1703:Arab rebellion in jerusalem,Led by El ashraf, Jerusalem was 2 years under the local Arabs control.

1708:The Muslim kadi uses his power to humiliate the Jews in Jerusalem.He forced Jews to were a very tal turban,And forbid them from crossing an Arab from his right side..(this one would be obseredved by the arabs up until the end of the ottoman period,if a jew sowuld pass near them they will yell:pass me on my left you dog!)
This situation reach a peak when he forced the Jews to burry all the dogs that the Arab killed after a dog was rumored to enter the El aqsa mosque in the temple Mount.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=false
(PAGE 148)

The kadi also arrested the  head of the Jews,The Rishon lezion,But luckily,During an Arab riot in the city the leader was realised by force and the kadi escaped the city.
All the cheif rabbis Sepharadi rabbis of Jerusalem since the time of Moshe gelantei II(1665) were called Rishon lezion,Which mean the head of the holly land(Zion).
1713:Rabbi Moshe Hagiz,Continue his fight against the Shabtai movement.He travel to Amsterdam to collect donations to Israel,And join the Ashkenazi rabbi Tsvi hirsh,In order to convince the Sapharadi community in Amsterdam to excommunicate the Shabtai scholar,Rabi Nechamiya chayun(also from Jerusalem).

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=QSZkPkft18oC&pg=PA77&dq=moshe+hagiz&hl=ja&ei=29UlTOf-CImycb-fpbsC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=moshe%20hagiz&f=false

However Hagis fight against the Shabatout movement,Especilay in Amsterdam,That its Jewish community becom the main supporter of the Jews in Jerusalem with the help of rabbi Hizqiya de silva,In 1690,Instead of the Vega family from livorno,That stopped its support in 1685,Couse great finanicial problmes to Jerusalem
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA5&dq=fakhar+a+din+lebanon&hl=ja&ei=l6olTKn_IZSjca_IwKoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(page 36)

1720:The Arabs burned down the synagogue builded by rabbi Yehuda They make it garbage dump and the houses near become Arab shops.They arrested many of the Ashkenazim and eventually decided that all of the Ashkenazim are baned from the city.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA595&dq=jerusalem+18+century&hl=ja&ei=t-o1TIaBB4OycZDcvOAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=snippet&q=1722&f=false
(PAGE 119)

1722:The pasha of Jerusalem,Yusuf, Oppress the Jews and arrest their important rabbis for ransom.The Jews are demanded to pay a huge amount of money for the ransom in 3 months.The young rabbi Meyuchas,Grandson of rabbi Meyuchas ,The great rabbi of Jerusalem that was arrested as well, Was sent to collect the donations from Jews in Turkey,Suuceed in convincing the Jews to help their brothers,In on his way back he is myracusly saved from Arab bandits that tried to mug him from his huge treasure.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=MEYUCHAS%20MURDER&f=false
(PAGE 123)

1730:All the Jewish women in Jerusalem which are involved with selling wine were arrested after two Arab women get drunk and one stab the other to death.After paying a very expensive ransom the women are freed.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touvhes+earth&hl=ja&ei=sjqOTPGWDoXOvQOf8ZzoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=damascus%20%20women&f=false
(page 124)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA43&dq=1695+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=EQWeTPGqEob0vQOPkfj7DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=arabs&f=false
(PAGE 141)

1733:The pasha of Damascus visit Jerusalem and expel all the Jews living near the western wall,After He spotted a few Jewish women looking at his direction.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touvhes+earth&hl=ja&ei=sjqOTPGWDoXOvQOf8ZzoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=damascus%20%20women&f=false
(page 124)

1738:Rabbi Moshe haggis join rabbi Tsvi hirshs son,Rabbi Yaakobv Amdan,To battle the Shabai movement scholers,Rabbi Yonatan aivshits and rabbi Moshe lutasto.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=QSZkPkft18oC&pg=PA77&dq=moshe+hagiz&hl=ja&ei=29UlTOf-CImycb-fpbsC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=luzzatto&f=false
(PAGE 78)



1739:Rabbi Nachman of hordna,One of the leader of the Hasidut movement in east Europe, Move to live in Safed and later Tiberia with a big grope of followers..

Rabi Nachman was one of the followers of the Baal shenm tove,And the grandfather of the famous rabbi,Nachman of braslev.

1740:Rabbi Haim abulafiya rebuild the city of Tiberia.The governor of the Galil and Lebanon,Dahar el omar,Is very kind to the Jews,And he invite rabbi Abulafia to rebuild the city,Since its rabbi abulafiyas grandfather that was the last rabbi of Tiberia.He build a big Yeshiva and settele many Jews there,A big market and public bath.

The city become very big until 1744,And rabbi Abulfiyas son succeed him after his death in leading the Jews in it.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA149&dq=tiberias+in+the+17+century&hl=ja&ei=tbIlTOe7CNSOcZKntK0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20in%20the%2017%20century&f=false
Rabbi Yakov birab II,A descendet of the famose rabbi Birab of the 16 century,come from turkey with a big grope of Jews to settle in tiberia.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yqXXD_74yAEC&pg=PA64&dq=TIBERIAS+BIRAV&hl=ja&ei=hLa9TInCIYSevgOHuLgj&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=TIBERIAS%20BIRAV&f=false
(PAGE 65)

How ever.while the jews tiberia preised omar,the jews in safed sufferd from him.just like every other muslim ruler,he also wantd jews under his control,simply becuase hey were defencless(they werent allowed to carry bany weapon)and could easyly be extorted by simply arresting one one of them,and they would panickly send messengers to europe to collect funds for ransom from europian generous jews,and it was a very easy income for arab rulers.
high taxeds were imposed in them for the army of omar,and omar also demendad a very expensive present from all the non-mulsims every time he merried,and he meried every year.
many jews had to flee and hide on the hills
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=SAFED&f=false
(page 17)
1741:The local Arabs in Jerusalem try to expel the Jews from Jerusalem because  of he increase of Jews returning from exile,And they even refused to sell food to the Jews.
Only after paying a huge bribe the Jews were saved for now.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA43&dq=1695+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=EQWeTPGqEob0vQOPkfj7DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=arabs&f=false
(page 21)



1742:The governor of Damascus battle with Dahar el omar,And seige Tiberia for 83 days.

After which the Damascus ruler,That is officaly in charge over all over Israel,Died,End the actual ruler of the Galil and Lebanon was Omar.Omar start to rebuild the port cities of Haifa and Acre,And setteled many Jews there.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA260&dq=hayim+abulafia&hl=ja&ei=h9wlTP2RJ4-lcfmYzMcC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tiberias&f=false
(PAGE 16)



1743:Rabbi Mosh luzato move to Acre,Where he also builded a synagogue under the approval of Dahar el omar. though being a scholar of the Shbatai movement,And die  3 years later, he influented the Hasidut and later Zionist movement deeply,Because he wrote both on religous subjects,Like a variety of subjects in the Kabala , And both on seculer subjects,Like Love and Nature.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA260&dq=hayim+abulafia&hl=ja&ei=h9wlTP2RJ4-lcfmYzMcC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=luzzatto%20acre&f=false


(PAGE 36)

1743;Rabi Haim ben atar return from Morocco to Acre.He will later dwell in Pekiin and Tiberia.His main student was Rabi Yosef azulai.

Ben Atar was a very adored Kabala master,And even the Baal shem tov in far away east europe admired him.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA260&dq=hayim+abulafia&hl=ja&ei=h9wlTP2RJ4-lcfmYzMcC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%20attar&f=false
(page 157)

In his time ,A meting between the Jews and the Kariats about the high taxes imposed on the Jews,Is used by the Kariats to humiliate the Jews and to couse abbi Atar to fall and to faint.When he wakes up he curse the Kariats,A curse that belived to be effect at list until 1853.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA595&dq=jerusalem+18+century&hl=ja&ei=t-o1TIaBB4OycZDcvOAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(page 130)


Atar was a very famose rabbi in Jerusalem,And his Yeshiva was so prestiged that it attract scholars from all over the world.He also had a second Yeshiva,In which he and his best students would study Kabala,

1744:the Jewish synagogue in Yafo is being confiscated by the Arabs.

http://geoimages.berkeley.edu/libyajew/LibyanJews/thejews.html

1744:The Jews of Hebron are persucuted by the Arab rulers and the local Christians,The community face explusion from the city for its debts,Since it cant pay the many taxes and tribust that the local governors and the local bandits impossed on them.
The communty look for help from overseas Jews after the community is being beaten and flogged.
http://books.google.com/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA23&dq=1765+hebron+jews&hl=ja&ei=iW-sTIH8K9CXcYvJ-MYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1765%20hebron%20jews&f=false
(page 23)

1745-1748:The Jewish community of Jerusalem is extorted by the Ottomans.The cheif rabbi ,Nissin mizrahi and other prominent members are often arrested and totured for exopensive ransom,That the Jews have to beg from  Jewish coomunities in Europe while their rabbis are being tortured until the full ransom come to the hands of their Muslims oppressors

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PR1&dq=ehere+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=8eKpTLq6CIOmvgPjtsjdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=women&f=false
(page 123)

1747:Rabbi Abraham geroshon of kitov,The brother in law of he Baal shem tov(the founder of the hasidut movement)return to live in Israel.
He came with his family,And setteled in Hebron,Where he was well accepted and loved by the small comunity of the Sepharadim Jews.
In 1753 he moved to live in Jerusalem,and joined the small Ashkenazi community there that lived together with the Sepharadim without the Mulsims even notincing,Since he Muslim bands the Ashkenazim from living in Jeruslaem ever since the days of rabbi Yehuda hachasid in 1720.
He would live duntil 1761 and would be one of the sages of the Beit el yeshiva,Which was famouse for its kabala rabbis like rabbi Sharabi.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=khcJwdVE4EUC&pg=PA64&dq=abraham+gershon+of+kitov+hebron&hl=ja&ei=5hWvTPjeJIOcvgOal-WtBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=abraham%20gershon%20of%20kitov%20hebron&f=false
(page 64)

1755:Rabbi Yosef azulai from Jerusalm travel in Europe to collect money to the Jews of Israel.He was a mix between Moroco Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.

After his death his main student ,Rabbi Shalom sharavi of Yemen would succeed him in the great Yeshiva of Jerusalem,The Beit el Kabala Yeshiba.

http://books.google.com/books?id=3VG7vNi6dGQC&pg=PA119&dq=yosef+azulai&hl=ja&ei=5PIlTMDJEs-IkAXpkYBx&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=yosef%20azulai&f=false

Sharhabi was involved in a mysterious incident with the Arabs that always harassed Jews that were praying in the western wall,In which afterward the Arabs promised to stop their harassment of the Jews.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=false
(page 157)

1758:The Arabs confiscate the Jewish synagogue that Rabbi Lazato had builded.
http://www.akko.org.il/English/Sites/PrayerSites.asp

1759:A big earth quake destory the north of Israel
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20synagogue&f=false
(page 353)
Many Jews died in that earthquake
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=SAFED&f=false
(page 17)
1763:The Jews of Safed are forced to pay for the battle expence of the wars between Omar and his son
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=SAFED&f=false
(page 17)
1764:The first groups of Hasidim,Led by rabbi Nachman of hordna,
Come to Israel,And settle in Tiberia.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=aWmoHFPZa_UC&pg=PA38&dq=nachman+of+horodenka+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=JtwlTOM50IZxiNfMpgI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=nachman%20of%20horodenka%20in%20israel&f=false

1765:The Jews of Hebron face again explusion by the Arab governores and local christians.The Muslim rullers want to expel the Jews and bring Christians insetad of them
http://books.google.com/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA23&dq=1765+hebron+jews&hl=ja&ei=iW-sTIH8K9CXcYvJ-MYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1765%20hebron%20jews&f=false
(page 23)

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