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2010年10月6日水曜日

3000 years of Jewish presence in Israel

Hello everyone


I have made a time line list,that record all the important events of the Jewish people in its homeland,Israel.As you can see ,There isn’t even a single year in the last 2000 years without any significant Jewish presence in Israel,On the contrary of what some think,Or claim.
I added links to the sources from which i gathered the data,Most of it is not from Wikipedia,But rather from several books that can be viewed for free on line on Google books,And from direct links to classic historians books like Herodotus,Takitus,Flavius,Sebeos,Eusibuis,Casio dio,Al masudi,Al mukadasi, and other history and archaeological sources.
If you wish to check the accuracy of the data,You can copy past the link and look for it yourself.
This file is very long,Since it cover hundreds of recorded Jewish events in their homeland Israel,And their suffering under the foreign occupiers,So please scroll down and find the period(for example ,Arab occupation period,Ottoman occupation period.etc)That you are interested in,or chose one of the periods from the board on the right side.
you can also select the desired history period from the list below:

The Israeli period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/israeli-juden-period1047bc-585bc.html

The Babylonian-Persian and Hellenist  period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/babilonianpersian-and-hellenistic.html

The second Judean period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/second-judean-period167bc-70-ad.html

The Roman period
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/roman-and-byzantin-periods70ad-638-ad.html

The Arab period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/arabrashidonumiyaabbastullunikashadidfa.html

The Crusader period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/crusaders-period1099-1260.html

The Mamluk period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/mamluk-period1260-1517.html

The Ottoman period:
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/first-ottoman-period1517-1769.html

The late Ottoman period
http://iloveisrael-lior.blogspot.com/2010/09/last-ottoman-period1769-1882.html

feel free to write comments too.
The result of this research show that:

1:Jews have been living in Israel for more then 3000 years,Constantly,Even after the Romans exiled many of them in 70 a.d and 135 a.d..

2:Jews have been living in Israel for almost 1800 years under foreign occupation.

3:Under the foreign occupation,The Jews had suffered from oppression and suppression,That the only word that can describe it is :APARTHEID.

4:There is simply no basis to the claim that the Jews stole the *Palestinians* land,Since the *Palestinians* are them self settlers from various countries that settled on the Jews lands over the years,Either with the help of the occupiers or regardless of it.

5:There's never been an Arab-Muslim independent state that was called *Palestine* and that was distinguished from its neighboring countries by actual borders,Contrarily to what the *Palestinians* Claim.
*Palestine* or *Palestina* or *A-sham*,Was an occupied territory and a neglected province of various empires,And never,Beside the times that it was under the control of the Jews,Was it an independent state of the non-Jewish people that dwelt in it(including the Crusader state 1099-1291).
there is simply not a single Arab-Muslim person in history that can be called *The king of independent Palestine*.Or *the independent Emir,Or Prince of Palestine.Only the Jews have a history of independent self governing in Israel.

6:Yaser arafat ,Head of the PLO,Claim that from one hand that Jews haven't live in Israel up until the *Zionist invasion* in 1882,And from the other hand he claim that some Jews live in Israel before 1882,Just like Jews lived every where in the Middle east,And that they live peacefully with the Arabs,Until the *Zionist invasion*.This research contradict those false claims and find them to be totally baseless.


Time line of the Israeli nation in the land of Israel:

From 1100 b.c to 1882 a.d

The first kingdom period(1100b.c-586)

:1047 b.c to 1007b.c:The crowning of the Israelis first king, Saul, That unites the 12 Israeli tribes under the laws of their early prophet and leader, Moses.

Saul assemble a regular army from all the tribes and rebel against the control of the neighboring nations, His main warrior and general would be the next king, David.

Earlier mentions of the Hebrews-Israeli tribes come from the Amarna letters which are letters between the kings of Egypt to their vessel lords in the land  that complain to their Egyptian patrons about the Hebrews taking over the country :
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/amarna286.html
part 19
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/amarna298.html
part 27
http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/amarna75.html
part 10

and from the famous merneptah setle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merneptah_Stele#Mention_of_Israel

 Ancient Egyptian Literature: The New Kingdom page 73




2:1007 b.c to 977b.c:

The crowning of king David over Israel. David defeat and subdue all of the neighboring nations, Including the strong Philistine cities in the south and the Aramim kingdoms in the north. He conquers Jerusalem in the center of Israel and makes it the Kingdom’s capital.
The new complete works of Josephus page 236





A record the David can be found in the tel dan astel inscription:

http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/teldan.html


Muslim historian Masudi recalled that as well (page 109)

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/fathers/eusebius_pe_09_book9.html


 The Tel Dan astel  testifies about the house of David,The traditional name for the kingdom of Judea, That was ruled by the David dynasty for more then 400 years.

According to the Bible, David count the entire Hebrew men (available for military service) population as 800,000 from Israel and 400,000 from Judea, and Benjamin and levy tribes weren’t counted.

Archaeologists believe that they found King David’s palace, and it’s seem that is was used by all of the kings of Judea after him.

Archaeology in the Holy Land page 233


3:977b.c-931b.c:

The golden age of King Solomon .Israel enjoy good relation with Egypt and the Phoenician, And gain a lot of profit from mining gold in Africa. The later Jewish Hellenistic historian Eupolemus write about that and its quoted in Esubius books from the 4 century a.d.

http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/fathers/eusebius_pe_09_book9.html

Archaeology in the Holy Land page 255


The king build the first temple in Jerusalem to house the ark of the covenant which the Israelis were carrying since the days of their old leader,Moses. The Israelis pilgrim to the temple three time in a year, In their most important holidays: Pesach, Shavuot and Sukot ,Bringing tributes from their harvest as donations to the temple and as sacrifice.
Archaeological evidence to Israel strength at that time is abundant in the ruins of Megido, Gezer and Hatsor.


Palace and temple: a study of architectural and verbal icons page 92

Josefus plavius,The 1 century Jewish historian report on king Solomon,As he report about all the Kings of Israel and Judea.
http://books.google.com/books?id=pTY4kBRIVQYC&pg=PA596&dq=herods+sons&hl=ja&ei=tyEnTIH4LpSekQXIocyTAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=snippet&q=haman&f=false
(page 267)


4:928b.c The split between Judea in the south to the rest of the tribes in the north,the kingdom of Israel,That led to horrible wars between the two sisters states. One war described in the Bible, Where half a million of Israeli soldiers were slain in the fight against Judean soldiers.

The wars attract foreign powers to try to enjoy the spoils, king of Egypt, Shishak for example,  Invaded Judea and plunder it. This is recorded in the karnak inscription.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=6OJvO2jMCr8C&pg=PA489&dq=karnak+inscription+shishak&hl=ja&ei=zP0mTMrxFY_JccfnxM4C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=karnak%20inscription%20shishak&f=false






5:908 b.c-867b.c: Though only recorded in the Bible, King Asa of Judea is reported to defend Judea against an Egyptian army that contained a million Black soldiers and defeat them. despite that Asa had to later bribe the northern kingdom of Aram to join arms against Israel.

http://books.google.com/books?id=0VG67yLs-LAC&pg=PA412&dq=hellenistic+period+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=QgwnTOX6AcGHkQWJ-PVp&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=asa%20egypt&f=false
(page 235)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=h7tWn3cBLBMC&pg=PA245&dq=king+asa+archeologic+zerah&hl=ja&ei=pz2XTKH_A4W0vgPJg_CZDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 245)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=0e1LmswuqgwC&pg=PA71&dq=king+asa+archeologic+zerah&hl=ja&ei=TT6XTMyFHoHKvQPIkdyZDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 71)

6:871b.c-852 b.c: Peace between the Judea and Israel lead to prosper in the area. They join arms to fights against Aram and profit from trade and mining in Africa trough their southern port in Eilat..

The Bible ignore it but king of Israel, Achab is mention in the Kurkh moonlit, Where he is depict as a strong partner of an alliance between Israel, Judea, Aram, Tyer and other nations against the Assyrian army in the battle of Karkar, Where Achab had the largest number of chariots.

http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1Lvh29qOHHoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA273&dq=%22kurkh+monolith%22&ots=bjmQrTflBj&sig=k-0DuKWDrGxYo06Jcdk5mhZG1v0#v=onepage&q=%22kurkh%20monolith%22&f=false

(page 276)

With Achabs death,  The vessel kingdom of Muab in southern east bank of the Jordan river rebelled against Israel.It is described in the Meisha monolit ,The king of Muab:

http://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%A6%D7%91%D7%AA_%D7%9E%D7%99%D7%A9%D7%A2

http://books.google.com/books?id=4sjpB5HlT-YC&pg=PA323&dq=WEN+AMON+ISRAEL&hl=ja&ei=-I2XTPeoBYGlceaY7KMF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=ISRAEL&f=false
(PAGE 158)




7:850b.c-840b.c: The rebellion of Yehu. According to the Bible, In opposition to Israel disobedient to the laws of Moses, A general name Yehu kill the king of Israel, Yoram,and also the king of Judea that was with him at the same time, Achaziyau.

 In the Tel Dan inscription, The king of Aram claim that he had  killed both of the kings:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Dan_Stele


Yehu also killed Izebel, The mother of king Yoram and the late king Achabs wife, Which were from Tyre,the daughter of the king of the Phoenicians and were considered a promoter of the worship of idols in Israel.

The killing of Izebel ,a Phoenician princes, Severed the ties between Israel to Phoenicia and Judea as well, Since not only the king of Judea was killed, His wife, Atalia the daughter of Izebel and Achab, Took control over Judea after him.The weak position that Israel putted itself made it becoming a vessel state for Assur voluntarily, As it described in the black obelisk where king Yehu is depict as bowing to king of Assyria..

http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/obelisk.html


( scroll all the way down to relief caprtios).

In Judea, According to the Bible, Idol worshiper queen Atalia ruled from 842b.c to 836b.c, And after eliminating every remains of the house of David , Yehodaya the high kohen and the generals and the city leaders rebelled against her and crowned the only remain of the house of David, A boy name Yohash that they succeeded to hide and protect during the elimination period.

From the time to the end of the century, Judea and Israel were vessel states to Assur and Aram.



8:785b.c-733b.c Last prospers period.

At that time Judea and Israel had peace between the two sister’s states:

Uziyau king of Judea expend south to Eilat,And controlled again the Edomin and even some Arab tribes.In the west over the Philistines in Ashdod and east in trans Jordan over the Amonim.Many ruins in the Negev desert are a testimony of Judea power at that period.

http://books.google.com/books?id=VfrMD6UjdnEC&printsecogle.com/books?id=VfrMD6UjdnEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=nelson+glueck&hl=ja&ei=kQInTL-ZLMqIkAWO7MF6&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=copper%20&f=false




During the same time, Yeravham the second, King of Israel, Expended norther in Aram and easter in trans Jordan, Where together with Judea they build new settlement.



:748b.c-722b.c the last sisters fight and the fall of the north.

A continues assassinations of kings in Israel leave the country shaky and loyal to Assur.

In 734 b.c, Pakach, King of Israel join forces with Aram and attack Judea. Though they can’t conquer Jerusalem, They kill 120,000 soldiers in one day, And enslaved 200,000 of the civilian population to slavery in Israel. Only after the prophet Oded complain about that, They are all realised and returned to Judea.

Assur intervene and conquer Aram and Israel , the Israelis from the Galil,Golan and Gilad are exiled,And king Hosha is appointed by the Assyrians as king of Israel.

http://books.google.com/books?id=AA7TsL3jlgkC&pg=PA498&dq=karnak+inscription&hl=ja&ei=9QQnTNKsCMygkQWG9K2IAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=israel&f=false




But 9 years later, Another rebellion against Assur was conspired by Egypt and Israel and its capital, Shomron was captured and exiled. Shomron was captured both in 722 b.c by Shalmenaser the fifth and again in 705 b.c by Sargon II .Foreigners were settled in what was Israel before,They would later be called Samaretans, And they adopted a religion very similar to that of Israel.
http://books.google.com/books?id=60fmNZQzwjYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=MESOPTOMIA+AND+THE+BIBLE&hl=ja&ei=RImXTJrdItS2cZqd4KMF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=ISRALIETS&f=false
(PAGE 295)
Right after Israel, The Assyrian went on to conquer Judea, As it described in the Assyrian annals of Sanherib:

http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/meso/sennprism3.html


The Assyrians reapplied rebellions in the area in 701, Especially in Phoenicia and the Plishtime cities.

Hezkiya king of Judea built the famous Shiloa tunnel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siloam_inscription



To supply water to Jerusalem and strengthen the walls with break from the houses,And also payed a heavy tribute to the Assyrian king to leave Judea alone but the Assyrians destroyed most of the fortifies cities and destroyed the lands, Enslaved 200,000 of the civilians, But failed to capture Jerusalem. The ruins of the city Lachish in Judea can testifies of the horrible fate of the city by the hands of the Assyrians.

the occupation of the big judean city of lachish was captured in the sanheriv prints:
http://telem-pub.openu.ac.il/users/helpdesk/10327/3.htm

http://www.google.co.jp/imgres?hl=ja&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=689&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsb&tbnid=C9_KT91Y-YbkTM:&imgrefurl=http://www.mikragesher.org.il/dev/encyclopedia/ency_html/377.htm&docid=-bhUKyPJZCbrfM&imgurl=http://www.mikragesher.org.il/dev/encyclopedia/ency_pics/377.jpg&w=660&h=460&ei=4WhfT_WZKIahiAfip-HqBw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=365&sig=115819934903000441461&page=1&tbnh=157&tbnw=226&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0&tx=128&ty=69


The Bible record that the Assyrian army was eliminated and 185,000 of its soldiers were slain by an angel, While Herodotus,The famous Greek historian from the 5 century b.c say that a plague fall on the soldiers and eat their weapons(book 2,chapter 141):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histories_(Herodotus)#Book_II_.28Euterpe.29


King Hezkiya is reported in the Bible to invite many of the remaining Israelis to celebrate the Paesach in the temple of Jerusalem,After 200 years of separation,And the people absorbed the former enemies as brothers.



10:698 b.c-586b.c:The last century of Judea and its fall.

Up until 639 b.c the kings of Judea were served as vessels of the Assyrian empire.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=7xZ-HUcAEP8C&pg=PA157&dq=king+asa+archeologic&hl=ja&ei=LTeXTNqINoy2vQOx48nmCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=asa&f=false
(page 18)
After that king Josiah, in 627b.c stopped being a vessel of Assur together with the rest of the area , And expended over what was Israel before.

In 609 b.c king Josiah attacked the Egyptian army passing trough the coastal area on its way to fight the Babylonians led by king Necho II and dies.

http://books.google.com/books?id=EClaAtUb2TAC&pg=PA13&dq=pharaoh+necho+II&hl=ja&ei=NwYnTIL7OMyOkQXo9MSTAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=pharaoh%20necho%20II&f=false

Herodotus also report about that.Herodotus always refers to the Jews as Syrians.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=YTCrx1KB3HQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=histories+herodotus&hl=ja&ei=rTCLTOerEImevgOMrfQX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=syrians&f=false
(Page 105)

The Egyptians lose to the Babylonians, But not before they crown a king of their taste in Judea: Yehoyakim, Instead of his brother , Yehoachaz, That was crowned by the people and was a pro-Babylonians.In 605 lost in the Karkemish battle to the Babylonians.In 604 the Babylonians invade the area and destroy Ashkelon,And that scared Judea very much and Judea subdued to Babel for 3 years.

In 600 b.c the king stop paying his tributes to Babel and in 598 the Babylonians sends their allies army(Aram,Muab,Amon)to destroy Judea and to plunder the temple.In 597 king Yehoyachin surrender in Jerusalem and was exiled with 10,000 of Judea’s high society to Babylon .

http://books.google.com/books?id=Uxn0BdJDLC4C&pg=PA136&dq=jerusalem+in+babylonian+annals&hl=ja&ei=bgknTO-5MJWekQXb7JFq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20in%20babylonian%20annals&f=false




King Tsedakiya that was appointed by the Babylonians to rule occupied Judea,

In 594 b.c,the king met in Jerusalem other vessel kings about another rebellion,But the Babylonians soon repel the rebellion and seiged Jerusalem .An Egyptians relive force that came too late and too small to help Judea didn’t help at all.

The archaeological finding in Lachish and Azeka, Including the famous Lachish and Arad letter letters show the military preparation and the close relation with Egypt at that time.

In 586 Jerusalem fall, The king and his family,And other nobles were executed,And the city and the temple were burned down.The population were exiled to Babel.

The remains of the destruction are stile abundant today In archaeological excavations. Only the poor people were left to work in the vineyards, According to the Bible. The Jews commemorated the destruction of the temple in that day(the 9 of av)from that day and on by not drinking and eating for a day.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Uxn0BdJDLC4C&pg=PA136&dq=jerusalem+in+babylonian+annals&hl=ja&ei=bgknTO-5MJWekQXb7JFq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20in%20babylonian%20annals&f=false
(page 137)



After the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, the area was governed for the Babylonians by Gedalia, a leader of the Jewish farmers that weren’t exiled to Babel, That was a pro-Babel leader before the destruction.He encourage Jews that fled from Judea to return to dwell in the Benjamin area.

Gedalia was assassinate by the king of the Amonim with the help of Ishmael ben netaniya, Which was a relative of the house of David and probably wish to replace Gedalia. Instead,The assassination of a leader that was appointed by Babylon,Put great fear in the hearts of the Jews and all of them ,According to the bible ,Fled to Egypt.This is why the Jews morn that day every year since then and don’t eat and drink.

http://books.google.com/books?id=3wwGAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA1-PA42&dq=destruction+of+jerusalem++by+babel+gedalia&hl=ja&ei=w6-DTJiCLYS3cdnprNAL&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=pTY4kBRIVQYC&pg=PA596&dq=herods+sons&hl=ja&ei=tyEnTIH4LpSekQXIocyTAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=snippet&q=haman&f=false

THE PERSIAN AND THE HELLENIST PERIODS(586B.C-167B.C)
586b.c-538b.c the babylon period.

It is appeared that the vacuum that the Jews left in the center of Israel-Syria,Was filed with the Edomin expending to Hevron and even to the Phlishtim areas,While the Phoenicians expend all over the coastal area, Even until Gaza.It seemed that the Samaritans,That were borough there by the Assyrians stayed passive for now,While a Small Jewish presence remained in the east bank of the Jordan,What was called the Tuviya house,And that will be very influential in the area up until the rise of the Hashmonahin in second century b.c:

.http://books.google.com/books?id=0VG67yLs-LAC&pg=PA412&dq=hellenistic+period+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=QgwnTOX6AcGHkQWJ-PVp&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hellenistic%20period%20in%20israel&f=false



Other tribes either immigrated to the area or were brought to the area by the Assyrians and Babylonians, Like the Nabatines.
But if we read the description that Herodotues give during the 5 century,It seems that while Arab tribes settled between Gaza to El arish, Jews and remnants of the Northern Israelis that weren't exiled by the Assyrians,And ancient tribes that after 700 years of living under Israeli rule assimilated to the Jews ,Lived from Lebanon to Gaza.Though Herodotus call them Syrians,Or the Syrian in Palestine(the Greek word for Israel)his report that only the Syrians in that area practice circumcision,Leave no doubt that he is referring to the Jews.He also report about *Syrians* in north Sinai,Which comply with the story about the escape of Jews to Egypt after the murder of Gedalia.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=YTCrx1KB3HQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=histories+herodotus&hl=ja&ei=rTCLTOerEImevgOMrfQX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=lake&f=false
(page 112)
new archeaologic findings suggest the even after the destruction of the first temple in Jerusalem and the exile,there was still a significant Jewish population in the Benjamin and Samaria areas.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=lu6ywyJr0CMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=israel+finkelstein&hl=ja&ei=Ud38TPn_H5Sfce_yrfQO&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=babylon%20exile%20left%20in%20tyhe%20land&f=false
page 306


538b.c-516 the return of Zion:

The Persian empire inherited the near east after the Babylonians,And its king Cyrus allowed enslaved nations to worshiped their gods as they believed and allowed exiled population to return to their homelands,Including the Jews:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_cylinder


The Jews were allowed to return to Judea, To live autonomicly, And to restore its temple in Jerusalem.

Cyrus appointed Zerubabel, A descended from the house Yehoyachin(the last king from the davidian dynasty that ruled Judea for more then 400 years),To lead the Jews to return to Judea. Around 40,000 Jews returned and until 516 b.c they completed the rebuilding of the temple.

The returning Jews resettled 19 cities in Judea.Though,The neighboring nations,like the sameratans, wanted to practice in the Reconstruction of the temple, the Jews refused.

The Jews were led by the pacha,Which was appointed by the Persian kings,And by the Kneset gedola,Which had 120 man,Which were mainly the Kohanim (priests) ,The kohen gadol,Which was in charge of the temple,Was a descended of the Tsadok family,That served as the Kohen gadol position in the first temple period as well.

464bc:the Samaretans send a letter to the Persian king and convince him to stop the building of the walls of Jerusalem.the Persians at that time were very sensitive to rebelions in Egypt.u


457b.c:Ezra :

Before that,In 472b.c, Jews in the empire were threatened with elimination by an evil minister to the Persian king , Name Haman.Mordechai the Jew, That saved the king from assassination in the past,Send his niece Ester to the king without reviling her origin. She married the king, And after reveling the king the minister evil intentions, The king (Xerxes I)that already approved the order to eliminate all the Jews in the empire,Allow the Jews to armed them self and to attack the people that were suppose to carry out the order,And this is how the Jews were save.The Jews celebrate that event every year with great drinking, gift sharing, wearing costumes.that the festival of Purim.

http://books.google.com/books?id=pTY4kBRIVQYC&pg=PA596&dq=herods+sons&hl=ja&ei=tyEnTIH4LpSekQXIocyTAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=slaves&f=false
(page 373)

http://books.google.com/books?id=Uxn0BdJDLC4C&pg=PA136&dq=jerusalem+in+babylonian+annals&hl=ja&ei=bgknTO-5MJWekQXb7JFq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ezra&f=false
(page 189)


Ezra, Was appointed the pacha of medinat Yehud,as the the Jewish autonomy was called, in 457,He change the Hebrew letters to the square Assyrian letters,And change the names of the months to Babylonians names.
Ezra was from the Kohanim Tsadok family,and after gaining a very respectfull position in the Perisan administration,was appointed to lead all the Jews in the Syria-Israel area,he even had the right to decreat capital punishment.
he returned to Jerusalem with a big wave of Jewish returness from Bablyonia.he recived a speical allowence from the king to run the province
From  his time , Medinat Yehud had also its own dimes:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yehud_Province




http://books.google.com/books?id=0VG67yLs-LAC&pg=PA412&dq=hellenistic+period+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=QgwnTOX6AcGHkQWJ-PVp&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hellenistic%20period%20in%20israel&f=false
(page 379)


http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=QHIVAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=HERODOTUS&hl=ja&ei=n-GITO3jEou2vQOgj-2qAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=JERUSALEM&f=false

From Ezra's time,the tradition to read the Torah scroll infront of the praying audience started,along side the worship and the sacrifice in the temple.600 years later when the temple would be destroyed by the Roman,the worship of the Torah scrolls and constant reading of it infront of the praying audience would come instead of the destroyed temple.

445b.c:Nechemia:

He was a minister of the markets for the king,and before that one of the Persian king most trusted persons.
he was  incharge as the pacha of medinat yehud.
He was given permission to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, And that upset the Sameratens that complain to the king.
to nechamias project of rebuilding the walls and to nechamia high position had three main opponest:sanblat,the samaretans pacha of samaria,tuviya,the head a of the rich family from transjordan,and gasham,the head of the Arab merchants that setteled in Gaza.
they formed an alliance and tried to attack the Jews while they rebuild the walls.
In 52 days :The Jews finished the work, And Nechemia renewed the pact between the Israelis to God.
in the the gathering of all the people in Jerusalen in 444bc he convince the rich land lords,that many of them were kohanim  and other nobel families that enjoyed tax exemption ,to erase all the debts that the Jewish farmers and workers had and to return any confiscated land and crops that was seised from them if their debt wasnt payed,or to set free people that were enslaved because of their unpayed debts.
 Nechamiya used his position to force labor to work in the building of the walls,he decreat that 10 % of the poppulation should live in Jerusalem.he also started the temple annual tax sysytem of 1/3 of the shekel in addition of log tax for the temple.
433b.c: Nechemia returned to Persia,But return again to Judea in 413b.c.
He dismisses the Tuviyas from the east bank of the Jordan from the temple,and  Restore order.

419b.c:Elyashive son of elyakin the greath kohen of the temple in Jerusalem dies,his son,Yehoyada,replace him.Elyashive served in the temple for 43 years,from 462 b.c.

382B.C:
after Yehoyada the kohen dies,his son Yohanan replaced him.
The Persian general that control Israel,Bagoses,Imposed tributs and heavy taxes on the Jews,He also promise the Kohen gadol position to the brother of the present Kohen gadol.The two brothers argue in the temple and the Kohen gadol kill his brother in his anger.The Persian general use that as en excuses to impose more taxes on the Jews and to humiliate them for 7 years.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bWgZAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=flavius&hl=ja&ei=PE2aTIT9NY2yvgPNx7DYBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=murder%20templel&f=false
(page 126)
http://books.google.com/books?id=8v50wloFEoQC&pg=PA215&dq=revolt+againts+persia++jews&hl=ja&ei=ykyaTLbAPMX0cJPb5NkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 251)

After Nechemiya death,the pacha position become week and the Kohen gadol position become more dominanat.in 395 b.c the Egyptians rebble against the Persians and take control over the coastle area up until 380b.c.this is probably the reason for the pacha position lost its power.

350b.c:after Yochanan dies,his son,Yadua,replace him.


343b.c:The Jews in Judea participate in local rebellion against the Persian empire that failed,Together with Egypt and Phinicia. thousands of Jews,Especially from Egypt,Are exiled to the Caspian sea area.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=5MQCAAAAQAAJ&pg=PR78&dq=phoenicia+wars+persian+jews&hl=ja&ei=iY2LTNiFIIb-vQOM4PwX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page ixxviii)

The Jews rebellion against the Persian empire was mainly because of Begesus and his oppression of the Jews and other nations in the empire.
Begesus assassinate the king in 339 b.c and crown a popet king instead of him,and in 336 b.c he kill him too and crown Darius,that Finlay finish Begesus and kill him,but the damage to the Persian empire was done.
http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=36983&st=&pgnum=170
page 170
332b.c:The Persian empire fall and replaced by the Hellenist-Greek empire.its seems that the Galil was destroyed by the Greeks while where seiging the Phonician of Tyre.

But for the Jews in Judea this was a dangerous moment.

According to Jewish sources, Alexander the great send messengers to Judea,Informing the local leaders of his arriving and ask for their loyalty against then Persians.

But Yadua, the Kohen gadol, Refused to break his ought to the Persian king.

Alexander was very angry on that, And after he met the leader of the Sameretens, That promise their loyalty to Alexander, And that caused great fear in the Jews as the king arrive to Jerusalem.The Kohanim and the citizens open the gates of the city after a few days of praying, and surprisingly,Alexander wasn’t angry, But rather politely entered the temple and sacrifice at the alter a tribute to God.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jqCZ34Cp2XUC&pg=PA78&dq=YADUA+KOHEN+GADOL&hl=ja&ei=yreDTLGPLovIvQPVuYGRBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ALXANDER&f=false
(page 79)


Israel was between Syria and Egypt and was a battlefield between the Egyptian Ptolemies and Syrian Seleucid's,the two empires that would were created after alecsanders death.During the wars a 100,000 Jews are expelled from Judea to Egypt.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=5MQCAAAAQAAJ&pg=PR78&dq=phoenicia+war+persian+jews&hl=ja&ei=L4mLTNCDPYqsvgPS89AX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=phoenicia%20rebeli&f=false
(page ixxix)

Meanwhile a great wave of Greek and Macadonian immigrants settled in Israel,And mix with the population,Especially with the Semite remains of the Phoenician,Philishitim and Canaanite,While assimilating their Greek gods with eastern gods.

http://books.google.com/books?id=SNfZ4OjH_ukC&pg=RA1-PA34&dq=hellenistic+period+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=8o6LTLHJI4LQcYzAqL8E&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=maedonians&f=false
(page 30)


Greek cities were established especially in the coastal area,Like Acre,Gaza,Yafo and also in trans Jordan,But the Hellenism inside the country, On the Jews, Took much longer then that,And hardly.

330b.c: Hunyo(onias) I Kohen gadol, Ruled until 310 b.c.
The Greek Helenists allowed the Jews to continue their autonomy in Judea as long as they were loyal.The Helenist,just like the Persians before them,accepted the Kohen gadol as the leader of the Jewish nation in Judea.
According to Josefus plavius, Hunyo used to be in connections with the king of Sparta.

http://books.google.com/books?id=3GY3iocrf_sC&pg=PA18&dq=the+book+of+maccabees&hl=ja&ei=QxEnTMiSGpCTkAWslulv&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=prisest&f=false
(page 95)

In 323 b.c Alexander the great died with no heirs,his generals batteled each other over the control.first,Perdix controled Israel but a year after Ptolemai I assassinat him and invaded Israel,he entered Jerusalem during the Shabat when the Jews are busy in their praying.he pretented to come in peace but when entered the city he captured 100,000 Jews and brought them as slaves to Egypt.in Egypt he change his attitude and setteled the Jews to guard important forts and also in Alexandria,where those Jews trade provided much economic opportunities to their brothers in Israel and they trade Israeli olive oil with Egyptian wheat.he also setteled Jews in north Africa.
in 314 b.c Antigonus conquered the area until 312 b.c when both Ptolemai and Selecus defeated him.Selecus also setteled many Jews from Babylon and Syria in Asia minor.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=YBarWAR2qVkC&pg=PA18&dq=the+second+syrian+war+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=EcaeTOWEKYzcvQPKrYWDDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20second%20syrian%20war%20jerusalem&f=false
PAGE 10
310B.C:Onio I dies,his son,Shimon I,replace him up until 291 b.c.during his time the population of Jerusalem was counted as 120,000 people.
http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=36981&st=&pgnum=25&hilite=
page 25


301b.c: After the battle of Epsus,The traditional partition between the Seleucid's and the Ptolemies dynasty was decided, And Israel would be under Egyptian rule for a long time.
Ptolemy I entered Jerusalem during the Shabat,The Jewish day of rest,And the Jews didn't show any opposition to him as he massacres the man and rape the women, Thousand were expelled and settled in Egypt.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=YBarWAR2qVkC&pg=PA18&dq=the+second+syrian+war+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=EcaeTOWEKYzcvQPKrYWDDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20second%20syrian
(page 10)


291B.C:after Shimon I dies,his son,Elazar,replace him,up until 272 b.c.
during his time the Ptolemai king was Ptolemai II,that released all the Israeli slaves that were captured by his father.
he also ask Elazar to translet the Hebrew bible to Greek.this would be the first translation of the Hebrew bible,and it made the bible availabe for all people.

272B.C:after Elazar,his uncle Menashe replace him up until 250 b.c.
in his time,the second Syrian war started from 260 b.c to 253 b.c.

253b.c: The end of the second Syrian war:Which ended up in marriage between the princes of each side:Which will cause the start of the third Syrian war in 246 b.c.

The Jews in Judea supported the Seleucid,And the Kohen gadol,Hunyo II,Refused to pay its taxes to the Ptolemies.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=TOBIAS&f=false
(page 135)


The relations between Judea and Egypt went cold,But as soon as the war ended,The Tuviya clan from trans Jordan used the opportunity to condem the Kohen gadol in front of the people,And to received the appointment from the people to go to Egypt and to appeased the Egyptians.
yosef ben tuviya was incharge of colecting the tax not just from Judea,but from all of Israel.in Ashkelon and Bet shaan for example,he punished the population for not paying him.

But the Tuviya clan, That wanted nothing but their own profit, Appeased the Egyptians kings with promise to pay triple the tax:And for 20 years the Tuviya used their positions as the tax collector to plunder Judea,up until 222b.c

223b.c-217 b.c:The forth Syrian war.The Seleucid's king,Antiocus III try to conquer Israel with no success,After the greatest battle ever fought in Israel,The battle of Rafha.After the Ptolemaic victory,The king was accepted in Jerusalem and Yaffo by the Jews.

221b.c:Onio II dies,and his son,Shimon II,or Shimon the pius,replace him for 40 years.this is considered to be the end of the Kneset gedola period that started in Babylonian exile in 586 b.c,and the begining of the Zugot period that last until Hillel the wise in the first century a.d/.
Shimon was active in pubilc work already before his father death,since his father Onio II was appointed to the kohen gadol position in his  old age and was very disliked by the Ptolemai kings

202b.c--198 b.c The fifth Syrian war. Antiocus III conquer Israel,That survived a big Ptolemy counter attack.This time ,The Jews help the Seleucid's to conquer Jerusalem.
in the Ptolemai counter attack Shimon the pius orginaises the defence of the city But the Ptolemai found an open in the wall and invade the city,they destroyed the wall,captured many Jews to slavery and even entered the holly temple.this is why the Jews were happy to accept the Selecuds

Many Jews suffered both in Israel and in Egypt suffered great prosecution by the Ptolemies , Massacres and exile to Asia minor during the war:

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=TOBIAS&f=false
(page 136)

But once the war was over,

The king granted the Jews their rights ,As it recorded in Josefus plavius writings,And in the Cheftsiva inscriptions. The transfer to the Seleucid rule, Weaken the influence of the Tuviya clan,And the Kohanim had once again gain their traditional power.



189b.c: The Seleucid lose in the battle of Magnesia to the Roman republic,And heavy taxes and fines is imposed on the empire. The Romans will start to interfir with the Seleucid affairs.

175b.c:The Kohen gadol,Honyo III have an argument with Shimon ben bilga,That belong to a family that assimilate itself to the Hellenists about the control on the markets,An argument that bilga take to the Seleucid's to decide.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=TOBIAS&f=false

(page 138)


But ben bilga also told the Seleucid Governor that beside the great amount of money that is coming from annual and daily donations to the temple, There is also the money of the Tuviya clan,That were pro-Ptolemy.The Seleucid Governor entered the temple in order to confiscate the money, And immediately died in a mysterious way, according to makkabim 2.

Meanwhile, The rumor about the violation of the temple Holiness and the betrail of Ben bilga stirred riots in Jerusalem,And Honiyo III was arrested by the Seleucid new king,Antiocus VI.

Honiyo III brother,Yehoshua,Or as he called himself yasun(Jason)Offered the king a great amount of money,In exchange for his brother position, And the building of a gimnasion in Jerusalem,to spread the Helenist idle worship cloture in the middle of the Jewish civilisation.Yason was a pro Hellenist,And wish to make all of Judea,Under his control and with the Seleucid protection ,A Hellenist polis.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=TOBIAS&f=false
(page 138)



The appointment of a new Kohen gadol while the old one is stile alive, With the appointment of a foreign empire and for money was un thinkable in Israel.

Yasun controlled Jerusalem for 3 years.

172b.c:Menalaus,The brother of shimon ben bilga,was appointed by Yasun to go to Antiocus to pay the bribe money, But Menelaus offered Antiocus an even bigger bribe to replace Yasun with himself, And was accepted immediately.

170b.c: Menelaus corruptness upset the people.He wasn’t even from the great Kohanim family, But using the Tuviya clan and the Seleucid army ,He controlled every Resistance and put heavy taxes on the people.


Menelaus even tried to bribe the king to kill Honiyo with stolen money from the temple.

His brother, Lisimacus ,Rob the temple while Menelaus went to see the king, And was killed by the people.The elders of Jerusalem went to Tyre to complain to the king about Menelaus,But Menelaus had the king execute them.

169b.c:Antiocus VI plunder the temple in Jerusalem,Without any provocation from the Jews.Antiocus is said to plunder and clean up many other temples in Egypt as well.The king stole the main worship tools including the alter.

168b.c: Antiocus defeat the Ptolemy dynasty in Egypt, But the Roman empire denied him from the spoil.

A rumor that Antiocus died encourage Yasun to rebel and push Menelaus out of

Jerusalem.

Antiocus returned to Jerusalem,And Yasun fled the city.In his anger he massacre some of the Jews and enslaved them.He appointed a new governor, That very soon attacked the Jews on Shabat:And he built the Hakra,A castle inside Jerusalem near the temple,And putted heavy taxes on the Jews.

167b.c: The Jews are forced to observed foreign rules and are forbidden to observe their own rules,They are forced to worship idols,Eat non Kosher food.On 25/12 167 b.c a sacrifice for an idol was burned in the temple.Death penalty was imposed on anyone who follow the Torah.

Mothers that circumcised their sons were hanged.Small resistance occurred here and there but it all ended up in the brutal death of the Jews and their families.

Tacitus,The famous Roman historians that is famous for is hate for the Jews,report about that as well:
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4R5XBB5OKMYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=histories&hl=ja&ei=ty6LTM-9E4i0vgOUpewX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=jews&f=false
(page 191)


The Jewish rebellion:

In the town of Modiin, The Resistance started with the Hashmonai family, Which were a Kohanim family,And the father Matityau killed the Seleucid messenger that try to force him to worship an idol.The Hashmonaim fled to the woods and caves north and east of Jerusalem, And used garila warfare.They also allowed resistance on Shabat,And very fast become very popular among the people,And  the pro Hellenist couldn’t operate in the villages.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=juda&f=false




Yehuda hamakabi:

Matitayau third son,First he ambushed Apolonius near Lebuna.It was the first time that a Jewish force ever attack a big and strong Hellenist force ,And it was the time that it won.The Jews acquire many weapon then.

Soon after,Yehuda attacked a force led by Siron near Bet horon and won.

After that, Yehuda defeat the big Seleucid camp in Amaus.The victory in Amaus,Not only gain Yehuda many weapons as spoil, But also attracted thousands of Jews to join him and fight.

After that,Lisias, Which was in charge of the area,Try to appease the Jews with promising to stop the religious oppression,But without any comment about the temple,And was rejected by Yehuda.After that Lisias try to invade Judea form the south but was stooped in Beit zur.

After that there were some negotiations between the sides,And even the Romans took interest in the dispute.With the death of Antiocus in 164 b.c, Yehuda took control over Jerusalem and purified the temple from all idol worship,And build new worship tools.It was on the 25 of kislev(December)that the Temple renew its Jewish worship,And it become a great holiday up until today, Its called Hanuka.



Riots against Jews started in Israel,And Yehuda rush to help them.

First Yehuda help the Jews in trans-jordan while his brother help the Jews in the Galil.Yehuda’s sergeants failed to take Yavne,But when Yehuda returned from Trans Jordan he conquer Hevron,And burn the ports of Yaffo and Yavne.

Lisias couldn’t do much in 163-162 b.c,But when Yehuda siege the Hakra in Jerusalem,Lisias had to attack him.

A big army with Elephants was assembled near Beit zekaria, Near Jerusalem,And even the boy king was there.Eliezer,Yehuda’s brother died while killing an Elephant that he thought the king was on it.

Though Lisias won,And Yehuda fled to the woods,The situation in Syria demand a temporally peace in Judea,And lisias got to a short peace with Yehuda,And Menelaus was executed,And alkimus was appointed as Kohen.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=lysias&f=false

(page 142)




162b.c:The control over the Seleucid empire was taken by Dimiteris, That got rid of Lisias and the boy king.But many parts of the Seleucid empire didn’t acknowledge Dimitries as the legit king, Including the Roman empire.

Though until 160 b.c the king had to deal with Babel, He send Bakhides to Judea and he was accepted in Jerusalem with no opposition's.But Bakhides, Revenge the Jews that supported Yehuda and now supported Alkimus and executed many Jews .

Bakhides,Thought that by doing that the Judea problem is over and went back to Babel,But his massacres of Jews had only isolated Alkimos and thousands of Jews supported Yehuda again.

After Bakhides, Nikanor,That was appointed on Judea,Tried to help Alkimus,And after a small battle against Shimon,Negotiate a peace deal with Yehuda,Just like Lisias before.

But the king demand Nikanor to cancel any promises to Yehuda and get rid of him.

Nikanor attacked Yehuda north of Jerusalem, And lost. He eventually run way to the Hakra.In the battle of Adesa,Yehuda defeat Nikanor.

After seeing that three is no hope for peace with the Selecids, Yehuda turned to Rome, And in 161 b.c a pact was signed between the two nations.

160a.d: Dimiteris defeated his opponents from Babel, And now had the time to move on Judea.Bakhides and Alkimus invaded Jerusalem and massacred many Jews on the way.The two armies met in Elasha, And Yehuda fall in the battle and his man fled to the woods and deserts

The second kingdom period(166bc-70a.d)

160b.c-142b.c:Yonatan the kohen.

Yehuda’s brother continue to lead the rebellion against the Selecud empire,And the Syrians were quick to realize that  Yoanatan is more stable then the pro-Hellenist party,And agreed to stop chasing him for up until 153 b.c

153b.c,Yonatan alied Judea with Egypt Potalamai, And Alexander balas,That was a contestor for the Selecud crown.Balas offered Yonatan the kohen gadol position in exchange for its support and Yonatan accept that even after he recive a much greater offer from Dimitrius.Soon after,Balas defeat Dimitrius in battle,And Yonatan was the governor of Judea for the Selecuds.

Yonatan joined Balas in his war against Dimiterius II the second,And counqure Yaffo and Ashdod against big Greek armies,Balas also gave him Eqron.

But both Balas and Ptolami were killed in the war against dimiterius II ,even so,The new king of Syria quickly made peace with Yonatan and granted him his ruler rights,and even gave him parts of the Shomron to rule,Which were populated with many Jews,And was also free of tax to the empire,This is consider to be the beginning of the independent of Judea.

Later Yonatan switch sides and alied himself with the Syrian general Tripon, And made treaties with Rome and also Sparta.

But tripon betried Yonatan and kidnapped him in Acre,Until eventually he killed him.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=yonathan&f=false
(page 146)
142.c: Shimon the leader of Judea: the brother of Yonatan.

Shimon repeled Tripon from Judea and aline with Dimiterius II, That acknowledged again  Judea as an independent nation.

In 141b.c Shimon reppeled the last pro-Helenists from Jerusalem,And renewed his treaties with Rome and Egypt.

Shimon assembled the people in Jerusalem and  was crownded  as the ruler and Kohen gadol of Judea,And shimon also published judea's own coins.

On the same year Tripon dare to murder the boy king, Antiocus the 6,And tried to rule the empire.But Dimiterius I son,Antioucus the 7,Rised to power against Tripon. At first he conditioned his support in Shimon with help against Tripon,But very soon Tripon fled to Dor,and Antioucus felt that Shimon is not needed any more and demend Shimon to return all the territories outside Judea to Syria.

After shimon defeated Antioucus army near Aezer, Antiocuse conspire to assassin Shimon,And he was murdered in Jericho by his father in law.
http://books.google.com/books?id=SNfZ4OjH_ukC&pg=RA1-PA34&dq=hellenistic+period+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=8o6LTLHJI4LQcYzAqL8E&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=polis&f=false
(page 106)

134b.cYochanan horknus

: son of Shimon,
Faced an invasion by Antioucus the 7,And decided to stay in Jerusalem.

After 2 years of siege on Jerusalem,Both sides decided to make peace,And Yochanan agreed to pay taxes of territories outside Judea,And agreed to help the Selecude in their wars.Later his army would participate in the wars against the Pertains with great success.Though later in 129 Antioucus died in Pertia,And Yochanan was free to do as he wish.

Yohanan horknus expended east and south and counqure the Edomim, And force them to convert to Judesam, instead of expelling them.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=aristobolus&f=false
(page 146)
He also conquer the Shomron and destroyed Samaria,And Beit shaan.The helenist Greek cities were completely alone against him.

In 112-113,Antiocus the 9 occupaied the coustal area from the Jews,But later the Romans forced him evacuet that area in favor of the Jews.

Yohanan had treaties with other nations in Asia minor and Greece as well.

Yochanan ruled until 104 b.c.his son ,yehuda aristobulos that ruled for one year, in which he conquer the Galil and convert all of its inhabitans to Judaism.


Despite that, Yehuda was suppost to be the Kohen while his mother was appointed to be the Nasi,head of the Jews.But Yehuda, Killed his mother and brothers, And crowned himself as king,Just like the Greeks.



103b.c-76 b.c:Alexander yanai.

He was Yehuda aristobuloss little brother, That  after Yehudas death married his wife,Shlomzion.

Like other Hashmonaim rulers, Ashkelon wasn’t harmed by the Jews because of its ties with Egypt,But yanai didn’t renewd the treaties with Rome, Instead he had triteis with the Pertains and Puntus.
many historians point out on this fact as the main reason for fall of the hashmonai dynasty in later years and for the roman occupation.

First, Yanai attaked Acre that was very hostile to Jews(Yonatan was killed there by Tripon)but Acre recived help from Potalamai Latirus, That rebelled against the Potalami queen, Cleopatra III. Latirus fought against Yanai near the Jordan river and won, But Cleopatra sanded her army,Which was led by two Jewish generals, The sons of Honiyo VI,And many of their soldiers were Egyptian-Jews,and thats why she didnt took control over the Israeli coastle area.

Yanai expended even more in trans Jordan ,And fought against the Nabatians,and conquer the Hellenist cities there.He also destroyed Gaza.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=aristobolus&f=false
(page 147)


In 90 b.c, A civil war started in Judea.

Besides the wars that were expensive in money and casualties ,Yanai was a king just like the Greek kings,And on the same time a Kohen gadol in the temple.this was very disappointing to the Jews,because the Hashmonai were  Kohanim but they werent from a kohen gadol dynasty,and only their legacy as the brave woriers against the Greeks gave them the legitimacy to govern over the Jews.

Yanai preferd the Kohanim (Tsadokim) over the Proshim(wise scholers) even though the Hashmonaim legitimacy came from their support as a consulting body like a parlament.

The war took 6 years and 50,000 people died.In the end, With his wifes influence, Yanai agreed to give the Sanhedrin(the parlament or court)its legitimate power.



76 b.c-67 b.c:Shlomzion the queen:

The Kohen gadol position was headed by her son Yochana horknus II, But she was the actual ruler. As a relative of Shimon ben shatach,One of the sages of the Sanhedrin, She was very popular among the people, And she avoided wars, Though according to Flavius, her army was bigger then any other country in the region. Despite that, She avoided conflicts with the Armenian empire by paying a tribute to its king, Tygranes.

The dispute after Shlomzion death:

Already before the mother dies,Her sons, Aristobulos and Horknus started to fight over the crown.

After a short fight Aristobulos won and ruled for 4 years.

Later Horknus joined with Antipatris,A former Edomi that converted to Israel,And was very rich,Togheter with the Nabatim,Attack Aristobolus and seige him in the temple,Later they fled after Roman treath..

At that time Pompoius conqured Syria and Asia minor,And the two rival princes ask his support, And he chose Horknus,And sieg Jerusalem for 3 months,Killing 12,000 Jews,And in the end entered the temple,Though he didn’t plunder it.

Judea was puted under Horknuss rule, Though the real power was now in Antipatris hands that served the Romans.This was the end of the independent Hashmonait kingdom in 63 b.c.from now on Judea would become a vessel state of the Roman empire.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Rh4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=ONIAS+II&hl=ja&ei=TBMnTMzFLZeXkQXuqOhr&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=herod&f=false
(PAGE 150)




55b.c-57 .c:Alexander son of aristobulos II,Rebelled against Horknus and conquer Jerusalem, Antipatris called Gabunius the governor of Syria and after some years of war,Aristobulos and his son were killed. In 54b.c the new governer of Syria, Keresus,Plunder the temple treasures.

Though at first Julius ceaser supported Aristobulos, After he died
In 48b.c Antipatis helped Julius ceaser in Egypt, And he was appointed the governor of all of Israel.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Qc-0KWxP3kAC&pg=PA178&dq=Antipatris+and+julius+caesar&hl=ja&ei=3x0nTNL8MMyOkQXy9MSTAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=antipater&f=false
(PAGE 108)



In 44 b.c Antipatris was poisoned by Horknus supporters, And in order to appeased his son,Hordus, Horknus had his granddaughter Miriam to Hordus.

Up until 41 b.c there were a few rebellions against Hordus, Because of the war in Rome after ceasers assassination but markus Antonius and Casius(the rulers of the east) supported Hordus and Horknus.

40b.c-37 b.c: the last Hashmonai revolt.

Antigonus II, Another son of aristobulos II, Invaded Judea with the help of the Pertains, And repelled hordus and horknus.

He ruled galil as well and stamp coins.

Eventually, Hordus was able to convince Markus Antonius to suppost him.Though antigonus defeated Hordus in every battle, He couldnt stand against the Romans , And after a long siege on Jerusalem and the temple, Antigonus was captured.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Qc-0KWxP3kAC&pg=PA178&dq=Antipatris+and+julius+caesar&hl=ja&ei=3x0nTNL8MMyOkQXy9MSTAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=antigonus&f=false
(PAGE 156)





The hordus dynesty:37b.c-4 b.c:

Hordus ruled under the permission of Marcus Antonius and later Augostus, On all of the land that was ruled before by the Hashmonaim with addition to big territories in south Syria.

He was an absolute and Tyran ruler, And he eventually eliminate every Hashmonai remains in his family, Including his wife.

In 31b.c Hordus was busy fighting against the Nabatim, And wasn’t available to help Antonius against Augstus, A fact that was lucky for him, And Augostus accepted his loyalty, And gave him parts of the land that Antonius gave to Cleopatra VII before.

Hordus maintain very good relation with the Jews overseas, And helped to protect them from oppressions. He also build many fortress, including the city of Ceseria and its big port, Sabastei in the Shomron, And he also build cities and structure in Rods and Asia minor, but his biggest project was the new building for the temple in Jerusalem, Which was very big, Strong ,And amazingly beautiful .

http://books.google.com/books?id=Qc-0KWxP3kAC&pg=PA178&dq=Antipatris+and+julius+caesar&hl=ja&ei=3x0nTNL8MMyOkQXy9MSTAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=temple&f=false
(PAGE 3159



At that time, The Sanhedrin, Or the court,Become the main religion Leadership of the people and was gathered in the temple,While the Kohen gadol position become completely irrelevant,Since the Herodian kings appointed the people they wanted to appoint,Regardless of the tradition.
The Sanhedrin,Are actually the second temple period name for the Kneset gedola,which was the assembly of the elders of Israel that advised to the Israeli leaders in the first temple period,And served as the third body of Jewish administration,Along side the Kings and their governers,And the Kohanim that served in the temple.As long as the were no longer Jewish kings since 586 b.c,The Kohen gadol position was the highest of all since the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem,But this was mainly because the kohen gadol was from the house of Tsadok,That serve in that position since the days of Mosess and later in the first temple.Once the appointment of the kohen gadol become political during the Selecuid peirod,The Kneset gedola return to the stage and after the demise of the Jewish Hashmonaim kingdom they served become the highest authority up until 425 a.d.

The sanghedrin, Was led by Hillel, That was a descended of the house of David. His dynasty will lead the people up until 429 a.d.

http://books.google.com/books?id=PrAdxFjB7k4C&pg=PA92&dq=hillel+sanhedrin+herod&hl=ja&ei=ziAnTLSXEIuUkAWqrsyTAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=hillel%20sanhedrin%20herod&f=false



THE 1 CENTURY
After Hordus death:

4b.c:39 a.d:

While Hordus planted to split the control over the kingdom among his three sons,A rebellion occurred in Judea and the Romans, Headed by varus, Brutally quailed it.

First Arcelius,Which was appointed to rule Judea, Failed to appease a small demonstration against the heavy taxes in Jerusalem,And it ended up in 3000 deaths.While Arcelius went to Rome to get the emporers approvel, The governer of Syria,Varus,Allowed Sabinus to enter Jerusalem to confiscat treasuresThe angry Jews attacked Sabinus while he was plundering their temple,And when Varus came to his defence,The intire country rebelled against the Romans,And spontanias attack against the Romans occurred.

http://books.google.com/books?id=pTY4kBRIVQYC&pg=PA596&dq=HEROD+SONS&hl=ja&ei=6KKLTLeuLoaeccCYiIkE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=SABINUS&f=false
(PAGE 573)


The Romans burned down Tsipori, Amaus,but spared Jerusalem.

Arceleus: ruled Judea from 4b.c to 6 a.d .He was removed after the Jews compliant about him to the emporer. He was replaced by Roman governers over Judea.

Philpus: ruled the northen areas like the Golan and the Bashan until 34 a.d.

Was considering a very modest ruler.

Antipas: ruled from 4b.c to 39 a.d over the Galil and parts of Transjordan.

He rebuilt Tsipori,And build the new city of Tiberia near the sea of Galil. Though he wasn’t incharge of Judea, He intervein for the Jews in Judea,Especially when the Roman governers oppressed them or offended their traditions.

In 39 a.d emporer Caligola replaced him with Agripas I, And he was exiled to Europe.

Agripas I:was Hordus grandson, And was raised in Rome, And was friend with emporers Caligola and Cludius since their childhood.

In 38 was appointed by Caligola the emporer ro rule Philipuss territory in the north,But very soon the tensions with Antipas in the Galil,Made Agripas the ruller of Antipass territory as well. He was appointed on the kohanim in the temple in Jerusalem.

In 41 he prevented from Caligola to put an idol inside of the temple.

Soon after that Caligola was murdered and Cludius replaced him, With the help of Agripas.

Caludious gave Judea to Agripas, And this way he ruled independently on the same territory as his grandfather.

Agripas was very popular on the people, And his devotion to his Jewish origins and fate were adored .On the same time,His efforts to gain support from the Hellenist cities under his realm were scarce .

In 44 Agripas died, and the entire land was returned to Roman government.
http://books.google.com/books?id=pTY4kBRIVQYC&pg=PA596&dq=HEROD+SONS&hl=ja&ei=6KKLTLeuLoaeccCYiIkE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=SABINUS&f=false
(PAGE 596)

Agripas II:

He was Agripas son, And was appointed in 48 to rule parts of the Galil, With authority over the temple of Jerusalem. In 54 and 61 he was granted control on big areas in the north part of Israel.

Agripas tried to convince the Jews not to rebelle against the Romans,But failed,And eventually participate in the quailing of the rebellion.

Agripas continued to rule parts of the north after the rebellion, But bis conection with his people,The Jews, Was totally sevred.



66-73 the great revolt against the romans and the destruction of Jerusalem.

The roman governes of Judea were allways greedy and brutal, But the last one Florus, Was the worst.

After he did nothing when Hellenist massacred Jews in Cesaria, And later came to Jerusalem and started to plunder the temple,A big riot started in Jeruasalem that started a revolt all over the country.

The rebelles reppeld the Romans from Jerusalem,But the rebellion government was a very brutal one, And even murdered its own people if they show opposition.

On the same time the Helenist in the mix cities massacered the Jews,And Jews attacked Hellenist cities.The ethnic riots oocured in Alexnadria as well,As more then a milion Jews lived there at that time.

In respons,Galos,The Syrian governer,Invaded Judea and destroyed Yaffo,Afek,Lidia and Narbata, Killing thousands of Jews and inslaveing them.AAfter seiging the temple for 5 days,He returned to the west and the Jews attack him in the Beit horon narrow pass and eliminate parts of the 12 legion and took its Aquila(eagle)according to Tacitus.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/tac/h05010.htm


Josefus Flavius:

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2850.
http://books.google.com/books?id=TVPraYz7EGkC&pg=PA480&dq=josephus+flavius+greta+revolts&hl=ja&ei=EmJmTeuHIoywvgPLrsjkAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=yafo&f=false
page 476

After the victory over Galus, Judea consider itself free. The people was assembeled and new government was elected,And its leaders were mainly the moderat part,and not the Zealots,Even though they were the ones that defeated Galus.

New Jewish coins were printed as well.

The government appointed generals to every part of the land.Josefus Flavius(yosef ben matityau)was appointed on the Galil and Golan.

Though he fortified 19 cities in the Galil,He had very bad relations with the local leaders and when the Romans returned 5 months later the area wasn’t ready yet for defence.

Even when Aspisyanus the general that would later be the new emporer,Landed in Acre, He waited until the winter will pass before marching into the Galil and destroying its cities,Inslaving its Jews and massacring them.

Tsipori didn’t even fought, And after 47 days of siege on Yodfat,The city fall, And Tiberias surendered, And Traichei fall, And 40,000 Jews were sold as slaves.

Later Gamla and Gosh halev were fallen with great massacre of its civilians.

Until 69 a.d, The Romans took control over all the land,Circuling Jerusalem and closing on it.

Already at that time, The leader of the Sanhedrin, Yochanan ben zakai, Objected to the rebellion,And fled from Jerusalem,And were granted permission to renew the Sanhedrin in Yavne.

Meanwhile the moderat government was overthrown by the zealot leader from the Galil, Yochanan of Gush halev, And out side of the walls,a different zealot leader was, Bar giora.But later the remaining moderats allow Bar giora to enter the city Thinking that he will get rid of Yochanan, In the great battle,All the food storage was burned down,And only when the Romans appear again in Jerusalem, The rivals eneded.



Titsu, The son of Aspisyanus,arrive to Jerusalem from the north with 80,000 man.

After 5 months of brave fighting of the hungry Jews titus destroyed all the walls and burned down the temple, While houndreds of thousand of Jews died in the swords and hunger.

http://books.google.com/books?id=pTY4kBRIVQYC&pg=PA596&dq=herods+sons&hl=ja&ei=tyEnTIH4LpSekQXIocyTAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=snippet&q=herods%20sons&f=false
(PAGE 804)

according to flavius,1,100,000 Jews were killed either by the sword or in hunger.97,000 captives were enslaved by the Romans from Jerusalem.most of them were exiled to Italy,and were later relised by the jewish community of Rome.
the famouse Titus gate in Rome depict Roman soldiers leading captured Jews carring the Menora from the temple.
http://books.google.com/books?id=TVPraYz7EGkC&pg=PA480&dq=josephus+flavius+greta+revolts&hl=ja&ei=EmJmTeuHIoywvgPLrsjkAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=yafo&f=false
page 527
In 73 a.d, The last Jewish strong hold, Metsada, Fall.

With the end of the rebellion,Judea become a Roman province,And its capital was Cesaria,All Jews had to pay special tax,In addition to other taxes.

The Sanhedrin become the exclusive leader of the people, And with the temple gone, The worship and animal sacrifice was replaced with praying and reading the Tora in the synagogue,And the study of the Tora and charity .



The Roman occupation(70-350)


From the 73 a.d to the 135.ad:

Up until now, the Sanhedrin leaders were:

Hillel(100 b.c-10b.c)was decended from king David. Was very liberal and was

Sensitive to protect the poor people from the rich ,Especially when it come to paying back loans.

Many of his words become an important part of the Israeli fate, like :*love the other they way you love yourself*, Or, *don’t do to others what you dont want to be done to you*.And many many other words of wisdom.

http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=9671&st=&pgnum=498




Shimon ben hillel
was Hillel son,but was very old when his father died,and only led the sanhedrin for a very short time before passing it to his son:Gamliel.
from his the sanhedrin become a one man leadership,rather then a couple leadership.

page 46
His son,Rabbi gamliel the elder(10 b.c-50 a.d)he is the rabbi that created the most important prayer in the Israeli fate: The 18 blesses prayer.He also was very active in the women rights in the Halacha, Especially when it came to divorce..

His son,Rabbi shimon ben gamliel the elder(50-70).was executed by the Romans.

After the revolt, The romans didn’t want rabbi Shimons son,Gamliel, to led the Sanhedrin ,Because he was related to the people that participate in the rebellion,And for a short time ,Rabbi yochanan ben zakai was the leader from Judea.

THE 2 CENTURY
Rabbi gamliel of yavne(son of rabbi shimon ben gamliel)96-117was in hiding up until 96,When the Roman emporer,Nerva,Was more liberal with the Jews.

He travel all around the country, And also send messengers to Jewish communities around the empire, To encourage them and to installed in them the teaching of the Tora.

In his time,There was a decision to create a basic fundamental Halacha(rules)and to close any open dispute about any kind of subject,Based on the rule of the majority among the top wise man of Israel, based on the Hillel liberal style of judging,In contras to the Shamai strict style.
the absent of the temple of Jerusalem left a huge void in the Jews tradition system.they couldn't worship their god,so the study of the torah by all Jewish people,and the daily prayers become the method of worship to god.one of the positive result of that was that most Jews could read and write,a skil that in many other nations up until the modern age was limited to only a few people.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 25)
In the end of his period occurred the Jewish rebellion in the middle east.Jews in Egpyt,Libiya,Cyprus,and Judea rebbeld against the Romans, and in the riots houndred of thousedns of Helenist and Jews were killed.In 117,The rebellion was quailed,And the rebels escaped to Lidiya.After the city fall,Its civilians were executed.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=CYPRUS&f=false
(PAGE 54)


Rabbi shimon ben gamliel II, Was only a baby when his father died,And this is why Rabbi Akiva,Served as the leader of the Sanhedrin at that period.

Rabbi akiva(16-136)his one of the most famous rabbis in the Israeli fate.Living 120 years,He studied from all the important rabbis,Like rabbi Tarpon,and Yehishua ben henaniya.Rabbi akiva is actually he center of the jewish oral tradition,And his philosophy was that though everything is already determined by heaven,People do have a free choice to do right or wrong.

Rabbi akiva was the main supporter on the second revolt against the Romans:The Bar kokva revot:

The Roman emporer Hadrianus builded a Roman city on the ruins Jerusalem,This was the main reason for the revolt.

According to Dio casio, The Jews assembled an army and weapons,And trained for years,Without the Romans even knowing about that,And build many many caves and tunnels to escape.

The Jewish rebellion was focused mainly in Judea and Transjordan, Though scholers are debeted if Bar kokva ever libareted Jerusalem.

Its started in 132, And in the Roman counter atatckes the 22 Roman legion was completely eliminated.

After that ,3 legions in the command of Juliyus Severus came from Britan,In addition to 10 other legions and more then 30 units.In two years,The Romans conduct garila warfare against the Jewish garrisons,Instead of confronting them on direct battels,And cutting their supply ruts one by one, Last fortress,beitar fell and Bar kokva died.

According to Dio casio, 580,000 Jews were killed,and 985 villages were destroyed.

Houndreds of thousands of Jews were sold to slavery in Hevron and Gaza and were transported to many different parts of the empire.

http://books.google.com/books?id=_J5bdHyPprIC&pg=RA1-PA96&dq=bar+kokhba+revolt+hebron+gaza&hl=ja&ei=ztaMTOHNN8-PcYX66KIE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFwQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=bar%20kokhba%20revolt%20hebron%20gaza&f=false
(poge 89)



http://books.google.com/books?id=mGIY62IssWQC&pg=PA253&dq=bar+kokhba+revolt+hebron+gaza+slaves&hl=ja&ei=mC8nTPTkG5WXkQWotuhq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=bar%20kokhba%20revolt%20hebron%20gaza%20slaves&f=false




After that the emperor decided to totally eliminate the Israeli fate,First the province name was changed from Judea to Syria Palestiana, and the observing of Shabbat and circumcision were baned and punished with death.Many important rabbis were executed.



After the Bar kokva failed revolt

130-160;The leader of the Sanhedrin,Rabbi shimon ben gamliel II,Was very young during the rebellion,And according to the Talmud, Supported the rebellion though he was too young to join the rebellion.

After that,In 138,The emporer Pius stop the suppression on the Jews and the laws against them(such as regarding Shabat and circumcise)and the rabbi return to Judea as a leader. While he was gone the rabbis decided the partition of the year without him.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=GAMLIEL%20II&f=false
(PAGE 74)

The Nasi,With the help of other rabbis like rabbi Meir,Helped the Jews rebuild the land after the destruction of the rebellion,And they assembled the Sanhedrin in Hosha,In the Galil,After the center in Yavne was closed.

Rabbi meir,Was a very important scholer of the Tora,and many of its comments are mention in the Mishna, Which would be compliled 50 years later.

Rabbi meirs traditions and legends are the source to the common believe among Jews even since that period,That charity to the poor Jewish community in the holy land is a gesture that grant mercy from God,a tradition that was observed for more 1500 years.
The work of rabbi Shimon ar yochai to rebuild the nation after 20 years of massacers and exiles was crucial for the continuity's of the Israeli nation,And this is why he play a very important part in the Kabala.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=GAMLIEL%20II&f=false
(page 75)

Another important sage is rabbi Yochanan hasandlar,That died in 150.

He was a decended of king David from his grandsons father,And  one of his descended would be Rashi(rabbi shimon itschaki)from the 12 century, That most of the Ashkenazi Jews are descended from.

160-220: Rabbi Yehuda hanasi,

The rabbi had good relations with the Romans and according to the Talmud he had personal relation with emporer Pius and later Markus orelius,And Karakala.

Yehuda moved the Sanhedrin to Tsipori,Which was a big Jewish city at that time,And the Nasi recived big lands to rule from the Romans.

In 192,A civil war broked in the empire as two forces fought for the crown,And according to the Talmud 24 towns near Lod were harmed,Since some Jews helped one side and other Jews helped the other.In 194 the winner pardon all of the Jews in Israel.The next emporer, Karakala, Was also in friendly relation with Yehuda, And gave the Nasi big lands in the Golan.According to the Talmud,The Nasi even owned ships that trade in with forgien countries.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=GAMLIEL%20II&f=false
(page 184)

Yehuda hanasi most important project is the compile of the Mishna, Which is the oral tradition of the Tora,that was pased from one generation to the next.
The oral traditions, That explained in details the laconic orders in the written Torah,Were forbidden to put in writing,But Hanasi was afraid that it would be forgotten, And he puted it in the Mishna.

http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=9671&st=&pgnum=493


Yehuda hanasi is mention in it many times,usually under the tiltle rabbi:

http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=9671&st=&pgnum=498

THE 3 CENTURY





220-230:rabbi gamliel barbi(gamliel III):yehuda’s son .

http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=GAMLIEL%20III&f=false
(PAGE 108)


230-270:rabbi yehuda nesia:(yehuda II)gamliel son.

http://www.halakhah.com/pdf/moed/Taanith.pdf

(page 76)

Was a nasi that dedicated to the education of the children.

Important rabbis in his long period were rabbi Rish lakish,And rabbi Yochanan,That are mention many times in the Talmud,As both of them study in the important Yeshiva in Tiberia and their arguments about logics are very famous.
Rabbi yochanan was the main additor of the Jerusalem Talmud that would be published in around 370-350.
The period(235-280)was a very unstable time in the Roman empire, And the Jews in Judea suffer from it.

In the end of the period, The area was briefly occupaid by the Palmyrene empier,With not much changes in the status of the Jews.

http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=NESIAH&f=false
(PAGE 111)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=2kSovzudhFUC&pg=PA348&dq=ZENOBIA+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=4dWeTNH6NIvovQOh2rWiDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ZENOBIA%20JEWS&f=false
(PAGE 348)
It seem that Zenubia that ruled until 272, Not only didnt harm the Jews but rather treat them fairly,Some unconfirmed Christian sources claim that she converted to Judesam.Despite that,The leader of the Jews,Rabbi Yochanan,That was almost a 100 years old after 80 years as the leader of the Tiberia yeshiva,Didnt saw Palyrene in a positive way and wish for its fall.Maybe he didnt want to awake Jews to jump again to the dangerous advanture of rebelion againat the Romam empier,And indid a few years later the Roman ruturned to rule Israel for another 360 years,And Zenubia was quckily forgoten.

270-290 rabbi gamliel IV yehudas son.In his time rabbi Hoshaya worked on his collection of present and past breitot,Articals that weren’t written in the Mishna by varius rabbis about varius subjects.

THE 4 CENTURY
290-320-rabbi yehuda nesia II(yehuda III).In his time the famuse rabbi Assi and rabbi Ami worked.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=NESIAH%20II&f=false
(PAGE 151)

The bizantic occupation(350-620)



320-365:Rabbi hillel II.yehuda’s son.

In his period the Roman empier adopted Christianity as its formal religion,and that came with oppression of the Jews all over the empier,Ecpecialy in Israel.

The Sanhedrin was prohibed from held meetings,And that prevented from the Jewish authorities to declared the annual order of the year.

This is why, Rabbi Yehuda in 359,Assembeled the modern Jewish calendar,Which is not based on actual observation of the moon period any more, But rather on a algorithm that predict the moon and sun cycles, Though the development of the calendar continued a few hundred years later.
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=GAMLIEL%20V&f=false
(PAGE 190)

In 351 another Jewish revolt occurred in Judea, Called the Galos revolt.

The revolt wasn’t just because of the constant occupation, And the historic opportunity to rebel against Rome when its in a week time,But also a result of the weeking of the Sanhedrin power among the Jews, As a result of the Christian pressure.

The rebellion was centered in Tsipor,Tiberia and Lidia,But though the rebelles conquered Jerusalem,The Sanhedrin didn’t supported them,and this is why when the Roman came and quailed the rebellion without too much trubles,There were no prosecution against the Jews more then ususl and massacres and explusion didn’t occurred.

However,Tiberia and Tsipori and Lidiya were dystroyed,And the Jews tsipori had to hide in caves for years.The abcsent of the Jews of Tsipori,Made the Jews of Tsipori pass the religious authority to the Jews of Babylon.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1757&f=false

(PAGE 83)


In 362,The new emporer,Julian the apostate,Was against the rule of chritsianity,And tries to re-build the temple in Jerusalem(which Jews werent allowed to enter to since 70 a.d).Jews from all over the empier returned to Israel and started the rebuild the tempel:And they destroyed the alter that emporer Hedrian builded on the ruins of the temple.The works continued until 27/5 363 because of a big earthquake,And later in 26/6 the emporeer died in battle,
 the emporer after him canceled the plan completely.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1757&f=false
(PAGE 86)



365-385:rabbi gamliel V

During his time rabbi Yermiya and rabbi Yosi ben yosi were famuse rabbis.This is the time that the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled, A collection of articals that interpetent the mishna.
The Jerusalem talmud,or the talmud or the land of Israel,predate the famouse Babylonian talmud,and there are some subjects that the two even disagree.this why the Babylonian academy tried hard to get the upper hand and have the Babylonian talmud as the main source to Jewish law. the decline of the Torah center in Israel during the Arab period ,helped the Babylonian talmud to be accepted beter in the new big Torah centers that were created during the 9 and 10 century in Spain and in Ashkenaz(the name the Jews called Germany-France)

385-400: rabbi yehuda VI:
http://books.google.com/books?id=t2bJ1UqfNXAC&pg=PA22&dq=RABBI+GAMLIEL+OF+YAVNE&hl=ja&ei=Y6WLTL2LHpG9ceHciMgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=GAMLIEL%20V&f=false
(PAGE 78)

THE 5 CENTURY
400-425:rabbi gamliel IV the last Nasi of the Sanhedrin.In 415 the Nasi was charged with disobbeing the law by building new synagougs,Circumcise of salves,And judging in cases where Christians are involved,And he was punished.In 425 he died with no heir,And by this the Hillel dynasty of 500 years had eneded.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1757&f=false

(PAGE 97)


425-520: The Tiberia academy :

This a period of time,that the Jews didn’t had a religious leaders that were legitimate because of their dynasty and realation to old sages,And they took a passive role in the land.in the replace of the Jewish patriach(the Nasi)the leader of the jews and their represenitive in face with the byzantines was called the ROSH PIRKE(head of the yeshiva).
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=r-9qJRP20MIC&pg=PA34&dq=JEWS+OF+TIRAN&hl=ja&ei=rqraTKS2FYafcbSFrMMG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%20TIRAN&f=false
(page 20)
At that time the western Roman empier collapsed in 476,And in a few occasion in that century,The Samaretans rebbeld agaianst the Christians,But there is no record for the Jews joining them.The rebellion coused the massacers of most of the Samaretans population in the center of the country.

438:The Byzants allow jews to dwell in Jerusalem.
The Jewish leadership in Isarel,Was very exited that and invite many Jews from Persia and Rome to return to dwell in the city.When the Jewish holydays started,around a 100,000 Jews gathered in Jerusalem,But were attacked with stones by christians monks.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 3)
During the Christian attack some Jews were killed,and it seems that it was orginised by the fanatic monk,Barsuma,that was responsinle for the destruction of some Jewish synagogues and killing jews in 422 and 421.including the big synagogue in Muab,in Trans-jordan.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=tu7esOXinfkC&pg=PA309&dq=barsauma+jews&hl=ja&ei=yP7bTN-uBM-XcaCUnMQG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=barsauma%20jews&f=false
(page 310)

The splits and dispuits between the Christians put the offical anti Jewish  legislation to a halt and the Jews used that oppurtunity to grow in numbers,To build and rebuild new and big synagougse all over the country and to cultivate the land.The Tiberias rabbis even inspired the kingdom of Hymar to accepted the Jewish faith.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=2kSovzudhFUC&pg=PA348&dq=ZENOBIA+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=4dWeTNH6NIvovQOh2rWiDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=425&f=false
(page 358)

453:Jews from Babilon return to live in Israel.

484:The Samaeretans rebel and capture Cesaria and Nablus,Until they are reppeled.

THE 6 CNETURY
520: The mar zutra dynsty.

In 500,Mar zutra, A relative of the head of the Jews in Babilon,And a descended from king David,Rebelled against the religious oppression of the Sasanid perisan empier,And even ruled a small Jewish fief in Perisa for a few years, Before the Persian re occupied the area.His son,Fled to Israel after his father execution,And was accepted in Tiberia as a leader.Mar zutra led the Jews in Israel from Tiberia,And his decendets led the people for 7 generation(mar zutra the son,rabi guria,mar zutraIV,rabi Yaakov,rabi migas,rabi nechamiya ,rabi avdimi)were the head of the Jews in Israel(according to seder olam zuta)

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=429&letter=S&search=MAR ZUTRA III


Rabbi Yenei:a famous hims writer.Many of his himes are inbeded in the Jewish prayer book.

His succesor, Rabbi eliezer klir, Lived up until 650,Wrote houndered of himes,Many are imbedded in many important prayers.

http://books.google.com/books?id=MZ2MwNzB69IC&pg=PA430&dq=eleazar+kalir&hl=ja&ei=gjgnTJjCGcygkQXw862IAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=eleazar%20kalir&f=false
those rabis where  some of the many rabbis that writed piyutim,which are bleeses and prayers that are still used up until today in everyday and hoolyday services.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=2kSovzudhFUC&pg=PA348&dq=ZENOBIA+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=4dWeTNH6NIvovQOh2rWiDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=425&f=false
(page 361)
In a time when most of the Jewish population in occupied Judea spoke mainly in Aramaic,the piyutim writers,or Paytanim,wrote in poetic Hebrew.
It seems that every Jewish community in the land had its own Paytanim,and they usualy wrote their poems for Shabat or for some hollyday.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 54)
Yenei poems were so pupular and loved that even the Christians loved it.the famous Christian poet Romanus melodist is known to used many of Yeneis poems.
http://books.google.com/books?id=HRV0QTxddjkC&pg=PA23&dq=Romanos+the+Melodist++jewish&hl=ja&ei=XFbdTOH3JI7qvQONur3nDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFgQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Romanos%20the%20Melodist%20%20jewish&f=false
(page 23)
Asaf harofe, A famouse Jewish phisician from Israel,Write the first hebrew medicine book,And the first hebew transaltion to greek medicine books.Many future  phisician will base their practice on his writings.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=SL34EWxAJfYC&pg=PA182&dq=assaf+harofe+7+cnetury&hl=ja&ei=PmeLTKXMHY7evQOczfgX&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false

535:The Byzantine emporer Justinian conquer the autonomic Jewish community in the  Red sea island of Yatba(Tiran)near Eilat.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=r-9qJRP20MIC&pg=PA34&dq=JEWS+OF+TIRAN&hl=ja&ei=rqraTKS2FYafcbSFrMMG&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=%20raba&f=false
(page 34)

During that time of the Christian suppretion of the Jews in the byzantine empier and the Sasanid empier as well was worsten.

http://books.google.com/books?id=z10-Xz9Kno4C&pg=PA353&dq=phocas+forced+conversion+to+christianity+of+jews&hl=ja&ei=4DgnTJ6SGsqIkAW56al6&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=phocas%20forced%20conversion%20to%20christianity%20of%20jews&f=false



556:The Jews joind forced with the Samaretans last rebellion ,That failed.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=pzo6KAH3FmUC&pg=PA75&dq=556+samaritan+revolt&hl=ja&ei=j5N2TP3CMIGIvgPt5tmyBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=556%20samaritan%20revolt&f=false


THE 7 CENTURY
607:The Byzantine emporer,Phocas,Is trying to forcibly convert the Jews in Israel to christianty.

614: The Jewish rebellion against the Byzantine empier.

At that time, The Byzantine empire was in a week position ,Because of its emporer was assassinate,And the Sasasind empier wish to take that to its own advantage .

They aliened with the Jews from babel,Togheter with the Jews in Israel, Under the leadership of Benjamin of Tiberia,And they conquered Israel with out much of resistence.The Jewish army was of 20,000 soldiers from Babel and probably the same number from the Jews in Israel, Especially the galil area,
According to Sefer Zrubabel and to the Armenian historian Sebeos:

http://rbedrosian.com/seb8.htm


(chapter 24-26)

http://www.religiousstudies.uncc.edu/jcreeves/sefer_zerubbabel.htm



Tough the Christians in Jerusalem surrendered,And the Jews rulled the city peacefully for a couple of mounths,The Christian mob assasinat the Jewish leader and his 12 advisers,And massacered and expelled the Jews from the city walls.

The Jews returned ,Toghter with the Persians and siege the city for 19 days.After the city fal,A massacre of the inhabitants occured trhough all the city and land, And some Christians even converted to Judesam.

The Persian king how ever didn’t like the way things become,And he ordered the Jewish troops to be driven off the city,And they were stationed near the Golden gate(in the east side of the temple mountent),And after some Jews cliamed the perisans are betriying them,The persians expled many Jews to Persia. After 5 years of Jewish autonimist control over Jerusalem and the entire land.
The Persians allowed the Byzants troops to aproch Jerusalem and to attack and kill the Jewish garrison near the Golden gate,And later the troops swept the country and killed many Jews.(619)

In 625,The Bizants reocupaied the intier area and granted amnesty to the Jews that supported the Perisains,But when the Byzantine emporer Hercelius came to Jerusalem ,He allowed the Christian to masacered the Jews ,And many of them were either massacered or fled to Egypt.

629:The Jews in khaybar,Not far from south Israel,Are being massacered and subdued by the Muslim leader Muhamad.
The battle of khaybar and the treaties that were agreed afterit,Would be a precedent for provisions in Islamic law,Requiring the exaction
of tribute known as jizya from non-Mulsim,and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslim into the collective property of the Muslim community.In return,Non Muslims were permited to practice their fate,And to be entiteled the Muslim states protection from outside aggressions,And exemption from military service.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(page 28)

630:Some cities in south Israel,Including Eilat and the Jewish city of Maqna singed peace treaty with Muhamad.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(page 29)


The Muslim Arab occupation(638-1099)

632-641:the Arabs occupy Israel from the Byzantine empire.In 637 the Arabs conquered Jerusalem from the Christians,And  a famous Jew that had converted to Islam (kaab al ahbar)showed the Calif were the old temple was.The Calif himself came simply to maintain order,Since the Muslim army massacered the population.

http://web.archive.org/web/20060429163403/http://www.christianorigins.com/islamrefs.html#sophronius


According to Christian sources 4000 people,Including Jews were massacred near Gaza by the Arabs.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(PAGE 38)
its also seems that a great number of churches and synagogues were destroyed during the conquest.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=harun%20al%20rashid&f=false
page 160

The area(of the temple mounts) was full of garbage Since the Christians ,In order to daily humiliate the Jews, Throw their garbage and sourage a that point for hundreds of years.The Calif Omar build a mosque there,Later he allowed Jews to return to live in Jerusalem, And 70 families from Tiberia moved in it,This after 500 years that Jews weren't allowed to enter or settled in Jerusalem,They were only allowed to eneter the city in the temple dystruction memorial day,To weap and morn on it.Many Jews that hury up and return to live in Israel,Setteled in Jerusalem and assign them self to clean the temple from the rubbish every day.
20 Jews were in charge of the cleaning of the El aksa mousqe up until Muslims replaced them in 717.they were exampt from paying the pol tax.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(PAGE 71)
since the Jews werent allowed to build new synagogues,the synagogue in Jerusalem was an underground hall very close to the Western wall,the only remain of the Second Temple.
the Jews also prayed on the mount of olives.every year on the festival of sukot they gather there togheter with many pilgrims.the heavies tax that the Jews of Jerusalem payed to the Muslims rulers was included the right to pilgrim to the Mount of olives,and even pray outlaud and sing,something that was usualy forbiden in  most of the time of the year.
according to Muslim and Kariat sources,after the 20 Jews  that were assinge on the cleaning of the el aqsa mosque,where the old temple used to be, were replaced by Muslims,the 20 Jews were incharge on the cleaning of the Omar mosque,even though it had already 300 servents.
the Jews cleaned the floors,the sacret pools,the glasses and the candels.its not clear until when did they continued to do so,but probably with the fall of the Umiya dynesty .
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=89811685&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#154.164.2.none
PAGE 181




In 638 a big plague hit the entire area and many people died,Including that some very importent Muslims,liker the governore.
instead of him,Muiwa I become to governore of Syria,including Israel.
he encourage the imigration of many Arab tribes to mainly Syria,though some were setteled in the port areas in Israel,to face a possible Byzantine marine invasion.


Up until 641,The muslims conqured Hevron and Cesaria,With the help of the Jews(according to Muslim sources only)And the occupation of the Muslims of the land, That the Jews preferred over the Chritsian,Was complete.
Acoording to those sourcess,200,000 Jews lived in Cesaria when it was captured by the Muslims with the help of one Jew.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(PAGE 60)

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA106&dq=blood+libel+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=9zWOTJS3EYOUvAOywrHoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=haifa&f=false
(page 152)

from 56 to 61 Muslim empire was divided in horrible wars,and the area of Israel and Syria was controled by Muawiya I,while the rest of empire,iraq,persia,and arabia were controled by the calif Ali.
during that time it is known that the Jews of Babilonia.like the head of the Jews  in the diaspora,Bostanai,and the head of the yeshiva:rabbi Itshak of piruz,had close relation with that calif,it dosent seem to have a negative efect on the Jews in Israel.

Generaly,in the eyes of the Muslim rulers,the leadership of the Jews in their empire was centered in Babylonia and was headed by the Rosh gola,or head of the diaspora,and the Jewish leadrship in Israel,that was centered in Tiberias and later shifted to Jerusalem and Ramla,was subordinate to it.however,not all the times the Muslim rulers,or calif controled both Israel and both Babylonia,and rebelions and wars putted Israel outside the control of the Rosh gola.from the Tulunid and fatamid period,in the end of the 9 century,the division between the emipres that controled the west,including Israel to the empires that controled the east,including Babylonia was ever more apparent and this allowed the leaders in Israel to be totaly independent from the Rosh gola in babylonia.
the leadrs of the Israeli yeshiva for more then 250 years were the Mar zutra family,that returned to Israel from Babilon in 520.
assuming that each of its members ruled for 25 years the order is this:
Mar zutra:520-525 or even more,he was only 18 when was crownded as the gaon of Israel.
Guria:545-570
Zutra II:570-595
Yaakov:595-620,its not clear what was his position during the great revolt against the Byzants.
Shmaiya:620-645.during his time the Jewish revolt ended in a massacre of many Jews,and the Muslim occupation strated,and the Jews were allowed to return to dwell in Jerusalem,but its not clear what was his position.
Nina:645-670.during his time the Muslims battle each other and Babylon was contyroled by Ali while Israel and Sirya was controled by Muawiya.so Nina was independent from the rosh gola until 661.
Migas:670-695
Misa:695-720.during his time there was the saura movment that attracted many Jews and wished to rebel against the Muslim occupation but was queled without blood shed by the Babylonian sage Natrunai.which show babylon power over Israel at that time.
Nehemiya:720-745.in his time Ramla becom the capital of the province,and the Jews of Lod were forced to move to it.
Avdimi:745-770.in his time the umiya dynesty was dystroed by the abbasid dynesty in 750.
Hatsov:770-795.in his time there was the Jewish revolt in the south of Israel.he his the last of the Mar zutra dynesty.after  him Pinhas and larer Josia and Jehoshafat were the gaons of Israel until 862.the last two gaons were related to the famouse rosh gola family of Bustanai,trough the founder of the Kariat movment,Anan ben david.

680:the French traveler arculf visit Jerusalem and report about the many Jews that live in the city,and how the city is full of Jewish pilgrimers during the Sukot festival.
the Jews also used that as an opportunity for comerce,and they all gathered on the 7th day of sukut on the mounth of olives.
later the 9 century Arab chronical,Ibn daud, report that the rabbinc Jews used that oppurtunity to pronunce a ban on the Kariat Jews.
http://books.google.com/books?id=rbT7Vur2ZTwC&pg=PA120&dq=nachmanides+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=7t8gTLSIC4GgkQXAha0U&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nachmanides%20in%20jerusalem&f=false
PAGE 72
692:The Muslim calif,Abd el malic,Finish the 4 yeras constraction of the Muslim mosque on  where the Israeli temple stud before,The doom of the rock.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 92)

Together with great migration of Arab tribes to Israel,Christian and Jewish tribes from Arabia had also came to Syria and to Israel as well.

THE 8 CENTURY
715:The Arab Calif build the city of Ramala, Which would be the capital of the province,Instead of Lidia.Many Jews move to live in it,And it would be a big Jewish city for the intire time.He also build the el aqsa mosque on where the Israeli temple once stud.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 106)

717: The Calif Omar II inforce the Omar pact on the *people of the book*,Meaning Jews and Christians,The rules would be inforced by the Muslim occupaiers up until the end of the Ottoman empier occupation(1917):

1:The Jaziya tax,Is an annual fee that Jews had to pay to the Muslims rulers,Regardless of their actual earnings,This will create a problem later,Especialy during the Mamluk period(1260-1517)when the Jewish population will grow fast because of massive immigration, But their financial opportunities in the land that the Muslim ruler neglect would be very little.Nevrtheless the Jewish communities in Europe started to donate money for the annual *ransom* of the Jews in Israel already at that time.

2: Building of new synagogues was  prohibited, Though its seem that in Jerusalem and Ramla new synagogues were builded any how(probably before the pact started).building houses and buying lands was also prohibited.

3:the Jews were ordered to were a yellow tag on them,To identify them from the Muslims,And weren’t allowed to were close similar to those of the Arabs.

4: Carrying a sword and riding a horse was prohibited, This sanction made Jews very vornuable to attacks from nomad tribes,And they couldn’t protect their land.

Though it didn’t mean that Jews didn’t fight,Beside from the first Crusade,When Jews were among the main defenders of Haifa and Jerusalem, Jews weren’t inroled in the army,but they did participat in revolts in Israel against the same ruler that forbid them to carry a sword himself.

5: Their testimony in a trial against a Muslim wasn’t liable.

6;The muslims could eneter freely to the jews houses,and stay there for 3 days,and the jews had to give them food and room.
the jews had to respect the muslims and give way to them in the road,or give them a seat.


720:A Jew name saura ben itshak(serenus) from Israel-Syria proclimaed himself as the Mechiach(the delivere of the Jews)and promise to recapture the Holly land from the Muslims.

He attract many Jews ,Especially from far away Spain and France to come to live in Israel, Though he encourage them to abundant important rules of Judaisam,Espcialy in the food and marriage rules.The Caif Yazid the second arrested him and executed him.

The remaining Jews that lost their leader, Ask forgivenes from the Jews.
Rabbi Natronai Gaon accepted their return to Judaisam , And each and each of the marriage was inspected to make sure that no Jewish law was broken.

http://books.google.com/books?id=MZ2MwNzB69IC&pg=PA324&dq=tabari+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=3EAnTPeaL8uLkAWz3_THCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFAQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=tabari%20jews%20palestine&f=false

(PAGE 336)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=672&f=false
(PAGE 145)

744:The Arab tribes rebeld against the calif Yazid III.One of the reason for that what the calif objection to the Arabs extortion of the Jews and Christians.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA841&dq=744+TIBERIAS&hl=ja&ei=UDSeTN_bOpCqvQOu49SCDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=TIBERIAS%20744&f=false
(page 86)

745:Another rebelion by the arab tribes,led by the arab governor of the area.the calif maruan II defeat the rebbels in a battle near tiberia,in which the jews and christians participate along side the calif in the fighting.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA841&dq=744+TIBERIAS&hl=ja&ei=UDSeTN_bOpCqvQOu49SCDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=TIBERIAS%20744&f=false
(page 87)

749:A big earthquake destroy the land.In Tiberias,The biggest Jewish city in the land,30 synagogues are dystroyed and the dystruction reached Jerusalem as well,And tens of thousand of people were killed.The Jews declared a fast to morn that day, for houndreds of years.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA175&dq=748+earthquake+in+tiberia&hl=ja&ei=ATonTJCIK9CHkQWLzNWcAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 89)



Despite the dystruction of 30 synagouse,It seems that the Jews rebuilded the city fast,Since from 750 to 950 the process of the development of the Tiberias Hebrew vocalization will start.At the time ,Tiberia was called Medinat Maaziya,On the name of a famous Jerusalem family that moved there after the revolts against the Romans.

http://books.google.com/books?id=VDtY4S09efoC&pg=PA7&dq=hebrew+vocalisation+tiberia+9+century&hl=ja&ei=qDknTJfUMZaekQXKzpGFAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=672&f=false
(PAGE 149)

750:The time of the Hebrew poet Pinchas hakohen ben Yaakov of Tiberias.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=MOSES%20OF%20GAZA&f=false
(page 178)

755:Rabbi Achai come from Babel to Israel,Live until 762.He was supposed to become the head of the Jewish community in Iraq, And there for the head of the Jewish community in the entire Muslim empier, But someone else was assinge to it.In Israel he wrote his famous book:Shelitot.A book that answer quastions about varius of subjects, With stories from the Bible and the Talmud.The book become later a source for information for far away communities in Europe,Like in Spain and Germany.


788: A saml Jewish revolt against the Abbasid calif is reported by Muslim sources only.
A Jewish worrier name Yahya ben irmiya rebbel in south Tran jordan,That its seems that even at that later time,Small Jewish communities stil exited in Trans-jordan.
Its reported that despite him having two Muslim advisers,He was very anti-Muslim and his soldiers were probably Jews from the area.
The Muslims try to bribe him to convert to Islam,and after his refusal to that offer he battle the Muslims for two years until he fall in battle.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA171&dq=al+muqaddasi+jews&hl=ja&ei=-vDLTJn8NJGgvQODntgR&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=yahya%20b.irmiya&f=false
(page 283)



796:Civil war betwin the Bedouin tribes becom a rebellion against the Abbas dynesty,And many cities,Aspecialy Judea's Beit guvrin and Ashkelon are dystroyed and non Muslims are being attacked.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=796&f=false


(PAGE 156)

THE 9 CENTURY

800-811:Anan ben david,the founder of the Karaiat movement ,come to Jerusalem and start to convince people to join his movement.
Anan was appointed as the head of the Jews in Babel, Since he was the only heir of the former dynesty,The Bustanai family,That traced its roots back to king David,But very fast the main scholers and rabbis opposed him,Because he was opoosing the teaching of the oral Tora,And the interpatation of the Geonim,Based of the Babilonian Talmud.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA175&dq=748+earthquake+in+tiberia&hl=ja&ei=ATonTJCIK9CHkQWLzNWcAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=anan%20&f=false
(PAGE 156)



In 770 he published his book, The book of the mitsvot,But failed to attract many followers.In Israel and in Egypt he had beter luck.

800-842:The country is turned off with rebellions against the Abbas dynasty,That raised to power in 750,Instead of the Umiyads.

But during that time the Jewish yeshiva in Tiberias is blessed with many wise rabbis that focus in the Mesora project,the vocalisation of the Bibliocal Hebrew language,The Nikud..
for example:Riqat,and Semach ben abi Shayba that lived until the begining of the 9 century.
Abraham ben Riqat,Abraham ben Furat,Pinchas the head of yeshiva,Ahiyau hakohen,Habib ben pipin,Asher ben Nechemia,Moses muha,Moses of gaza and many more that lived in the 9 century in Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=MOSES%20OF%20GAZA&f=false
(page 179)

807:The calif Harun al rashid order the destruction of all the houses of prayers in the Abassid empier.its possible that the intention was refering to houses of prayers that were builded after the arab conquest,like in Jerusalem and Ramla.its not clear to what efect that order was carried out in occupied Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=harun%20al%20rashid&f=false
page 160


In 809,A Jewish, Arab,And Christian revolt ocured but it failed as well.
more rebelion soccured during the next 5 years,and cause greatb suffering to the samaretans,but also to the jews and christians.

814: a great hunger in occupied Israel,casued by locusts,bring to a decline in the number of Muslims in the land.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=harun%20al%20rashid&f=false
page 295

In 842,There was a big revolt that mainly Muslims participate in against the Abbas dynasty,That failed too.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=RA1-PA160&dq=REVOLT+IN+PALESTINE+842&hl=ja&ei=fOqMTLSKE8nMcLjRpM0E&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=842&f=false
(PAGE 159)



In the Fatimid period, The Gaon of Israel was the leader of all of the Jews in the empire, In the Muslim rulers eyes,And every Jew had to obey him.

850:The Abbasis calif,Al mutawakil,Order the Jews and other non Muslims to wear diferent close then the Muslims,And in adition to other restrictions ,Confiscate 10 % of their houses all over the abbasid empire.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+dhimmi&hl=ja&ei=CDqjTNeNK42OvQPRnKn7Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=850&f=false
(page 185)
the calif also repeated the order from 807 to destroy all the house of prayers in the empier
863-893:rabbi Tsemach,that his family was related to the head of the Jews in Babilon,is the Gaon of Israel.

878:The land is conqured by the Tulunies(the governor of Egypt,After quailing a rebellion in Israel,Took control over Israel and Syria,And stop pay its taxes to the Abassid,the dynasty founder was called Tulun).
The new rullers were favorats of the Jews and generaly tried to maintain a very good security condition in the land.
however,
According to one source, a Sameretans source,the conqure of the area by Tulun was involved with plunder of  viliges on the way to Ramla and even rape of women.
after the conquest of Damascus Tulun returbed to Israel and confiscated work animals and crops,he also enslaved the man to work in varius works.after that he returned to Egypt and the governor was appointed to rule the area treadted the non Muslims harshly and oppresed the entier popilation.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=13300117&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#367.8885.3.none
page 352
another source that can support that is that before the Tulun occupation,the taxes from the center of Israel area,that was caled jund falastin by the Arabs,yeild an annual 800,000 dinars in land taxes,but in the year after Tulun took control over the area,the annual yeild from land tax was 4,300,000 dinars.
this show that even though the governore of the area before Tulun was known to harshly oppresing the population,Tulun oppresed the population even harsher.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=moshe+gil&hl=ja&ei=KgNyTb3OCIe4vgOI3_S9AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tulun&f=false
PAGE 307
The Karaitas(Annans followers) main ledear would be Daniel ben moshe elmkosi
And Elmekosi encourage Jews to return and to live in Jerusalem,So many Jews did return to live in Israel,Especialy from north Africa and Italy.Another thing about the kariats,Is that they wrote more in Hebrew more then in Aramic or Arabic.

893-910:The gaon of Israel is rabbi Aharon ben moshe.

THE 10 CENTURY

905:The Tulunid dynasty come to an end and the Abbasids returned.

906:the Qaramaits,a Muslim Shiha sect,invade Israel from the north and massacre many people in Tiberias,including Jews .

910-912:Rabbi Itshak is the gaon of Israel.

915:Rabbi Saadia Gaon,Writes the first Hebrew dictunary.He also translated the Bible and the Mishna to Arabic.He also wrote a praying book that collect all the prayers .
Sadia gaon wrote many other famous and importents books.He also argued a lot with the Karaiat movments, That were spilit apart from formal Judisam.
He was born in Egpyt, In the age 33 went to Tiberia to study more,So he could fight against the Kariast.
He was very appriciat by all the communities.

922:An argument between the Yeshiva in Israel to the big yeshiva in Babel about the calculation of the year and months,That is usually being decided by the Israeli YeshivaCcoused the two communities to celebrat the Pesah holyday on different days.This time,Sadia gaon was on the Babel side,While his opponent from Israel was rabbi Aaron ben Meir,In the end,The Israelis accepted the big Yeshiva of Babel opinion,Out of respect to rabbi Sadia Gaon.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=snippet&q=gaon%20jerusalem%20jews&f=false
(PAGE 218)

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=paltiel+hanagid&source=bl&ots=1aATDktqk6&sig=Q69sG8Pr655o-LWtNDwoAiBB81c&hl=ja&ei=8R8eTO3xKIOeceyUhPUM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 323)

926-933:Rabbi Avraham ben aharon is the gaon of Israel.

935: The Ikshadid dynasty take control over the land up until 969,When they were replaced by the Fatimids.Up until 946 the enitier country was destroyed with their wars against varius rebelions and invasions.The end of the Ikshadid dynasty came after a masive Qaramat invasion that plunder Tiberias and later Ramla.the poeple of Ramla Had to pay a colective ransom of 125,000 Egyptina dinars for the Qaramits to leave them alone,many were killed or taken captive to be sold as slaves.

950:The Tiberia Hebrew vocalization scholars reach its peak.The Asher family,Was a Tiberian family that ever since the beginning of the 8 century  dealt with  old scribes and the right pronauciation of the reading of the Hebrew in the Bible and the Talmud.

Their oponet was Moshe ben naftali, also a son of a famous Israeli family that dealt with scribes.Later rabbis like the Rambam will take the Asher as the right oppinon.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4q1MHDoFVwkC&pg=PA124&dq=moshe+ben+naftali&hl=ja&ei=qXuCTKqgMIOevQO189ikBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=moshe%20ben%20naftali&f=false

960:Avraham succed his father,Aharon ben meir as the Gaon of Jerusalem.

969:The country is being taken under the control of the Fatimids,which were a north African Muslim dynesty.The calif,Al muiz,Is very favoret of the Jews,And he appointed an Italian Jew,(that planned the califs invasion to Egypt and Syria)name Paltiel the nagid(the representor)to rule Israel,He was also the leader of the Jews in the empier,Though,once again,The big Yeshiva in Babel were still under the control of the Abasids.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=ramla%20jews%20arabs&f=false
(page 359)

971:The Qarmatis,A Muslim sect,Rebel against the Fatimids and invade Israel,And destroy Ramla,A city with a big Jewish poppulation.The Qarmatis leave  the area after a few months.Once again a heavey ranson of 300,000 dinars was imposed on the population of Ramla.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=ramla%20oppresion&f=false
(page 339)

975:The Byzantine empier,Led by Tsimisces,Capture Israel and Syria for one year from the Muslims,It seem that most of the cities capitulate to the Christians armies and thus a great massacre was averted.The emporer died a year later,And the Fatimide returned.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=L_xxOM85bD8C&pg=PA443&dq=970+tzimisces&hl=ja&ei=TaScTKefDJO0vgOpmLicDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=970%20tzimisces&f=false
(page 443)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yqk3XE196GsC&pg=PA528&dq=970+tzimisces+jews&hl=ja&ei=eaacTNqCFpCsvgOFmZmZDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 528)

976: Paltiel died,And his son Shmuel succed him.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=paltiel+hanagid&source=bl&ots=1aATDktqk6&sig=Q69sG8Pr655o-LWtNDwoAiBB81c&hl=ja&ei=8R8eTO3xKIOeceyUhPUM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 330)
But the Bizants dosnet conquer Jerusalem,though its seems that they planned to,and they also planned to expel the Jews form the city once they will and they contact some of the Arabs in the city about that,according to Jewish-Karai sources from that time,like salmon ben yeruham and yefet ben ali. 

975-996:The period of the Fatimid calif,Al aziz,Was a very positive time for the Jews in Israel,Since the governor of Israel and Syria was a Jew,While the governor of Egypt was a Jew that converted to Islam,Yaakob ben khilis,And both of them protected the Jews so much that the Muslim historian El muqadasi was envies of them:*Everywhere jews and chrisians have the upper hand*
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=PALTIEL&f=false
(page 175)
however,the fatimid control on the land was very limited.from 969 to 1029 the 60 years war between the Fatamidt to the Qaramist and their Turkish and Arab alies tear off the country apart.in 978 for exmaple ,the Qaramats conqured ramla again,tough soon later their leader died and they spread away.this was the time that the tay bedouin tribe that imigrated to israel form arabia at that time becom the dominanat Arab tribe in occupaied Israel.
The suitiation was that most of the Muslims in Israel hated the Fatamids and even prefered the Byzants over them,explian why the Fatamids  were so execpetion in their favor towards the Jews in Israel.

From 990 to 996 ,The governor of Syria and Israel was a Jew name Menashe,Which was called El qazzaz by the Muslims.It seems that his protection of the Jews  upset the Muslims and they had him removed.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA200&dq=al+qazzaz+jew&hl=ja&ei=U4CoTJWIKI2gvgOGiK3pDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=al%20qazzaz%20jew&f=false
(page 200)
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=adi&f=false
(page 359)

989:The new Fatimid calif, Hakim,Supres the non Muslims in the empier,Though his hate was mainly against Christians.He ruled until 1021.He also band the use of wine,Which the country was a great producer of.He also destroyed all of the churches in Israel.There were also reports on forced conversion to Islam in exchange to violent death or confiscation of property.the synagoge in ramla ws converted into a mosque.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=a5QVgePlWz0C&pg=PA123&dq=el+hakim+fatimids&hl=ja&ei=LX6CTJ2_IZC2vQP_jozHBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jews&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%20yehuda%20&f=false
(page 177)
The calif hakim was an exeption among the Fatamids califs with his hate against the non-Muslims,and its seems that the political motive behaind it was to get the support of the Muslims in the area.it could be that his actions against the Christians,that send shock wave in Christian Europe,coased the Crusads.
THE 11 CENTURY
1000:Around that time,The Bedouin tribe,The Tai,After years of invasion to the settle land,Took the actual control of the inner country,And his leader,The bani jarach,Were the actual rulers of the land.At that point,the fatimids gave them ramla to rule to appease them,But already in 1013 they will rebel and will rule the country.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA106&dq=blood+libel+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=9zWOTJS3EYOUvAOywrHoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBTgK#v=snippet&q=rape&f=false
(page 205)

The Bedouin didn’t respect any law,And they targeted and oppressed the non-Muslims and confiscated many lands.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=snippet&q=bedouin%201025&f=false
(PAGE 383)
The Jews of Jerusalem report on massacres, Rape of women and children, The dystruction of houses and the burning of fields.
The Jewish communities of Jerusalem and Ramla become very small.
http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA346&dq=JACOB+DE+HASS&hl=ja&ei=dPmMTKPkMcSWcci2wcwE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 180)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA342&dq=ibrahim+pasha+jews&hl=ja&ei=iRkmTM2jPIykcdvw8NgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=murder&f=false
(page 205)

1003:Ramla and Tiberia,cities with big Jewish population suffers beating and torturs to pay huge sums of money.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q=RAMLA%20OPPRESION&f=false
(page 372)

1010:The Gaon of Israel rabbi Yeshaya report that the calif destroyed the Jewish synagogues in Jerusalem in Ramla.

1025:Wars between the Muslims and Christians dystroyes Jerusalem.Shlomo hakohen Gaon ben yosef,The leader of the Jews of Jerusalem described the poor situation of the Jews:After that war,We have nothing left,We are empty,Naked,Sad,Poor,Not even a clothing to cover our self.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=snippet&q=gaon%20jerusalem%20jews&f=false
(PAGE 601)
the same rabbi also report that the Jews of Jerusalem were charged with around 30,000 dinar speical tax,in addition to the other tax that they pay as non-Muslims(the pol tax and the land tax,and other taxes).the Jews were left pennyless.they had to borow money from their Arab neighbors and mortgage their property,and many were tortored until they could pay.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q=ramla%20jews&f=false
(page 393)
The Gaon Shlomo Hakohen was the Gaon of Israel  for only one year,after his father Yehshiya that was the Gaon from 1010,this show how bad was the situation of the eniteir community in Israel.the Gaon after him served as the leader until 1051,rabbi Shlomo ben yehuda.

1033:A strong earth quake hit Israel and many dies in Jerusalem and Ramla.The Gaon of Ramla,Solomon be yehuda,Describe it in detailes:
 http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%20yehuda%20&f=false
(page 179)

1043:  A contervercy start in Jerusalem when a Certian Jew chalange the Gaon of Jerusalem, Shlomo ben yehuda.
The Jew was Nathan ben avraham,a Jerusalemit that was very succesfull in North Africa and was rabbi Hushiels scholar and when he was welthy enough returned to Cairo where he was very active in favor of the Jewish  community and later  moved back to Jerusalem,and since he was from a family of Geonim he attract many followers and he demanded to replaced the present Gaon with himself.
in order to avoid conflict he was appointed second to the Gaon,but the conflict continued and the two arguing sides send letters to varius Jewish communites complaining  about each other and at one time they even physicly beat each other.

With the Kariat community support Nathan was pronouce as the Gaon  and they even gather in the synagogue in Ramla,the Gaons son didnt want the local governore of Ramla to use the argument as a reason to close down the Jewish synagogue,moved to a differeent synagogue.
in the period of time that Nathan was the Gaon,the Jews and the Kariats Jews abandonad their usual mutual content to each other and celebrated Purim together and prayed and red the Ester scrol in the lights of many candels and were very happy together.
but the mutual argument between the two contestors to the Gaon position was eventualy used as a reason for the local Arab ruler of Jerusalem to close down the Jews syngogue for 2 years.during that time Shlomo got the aproval of the fatimid autorities and nathan had to give up .
4 years after the begining of the argumnnt,all of the Jews in Israel were gathered in Hoshana raba festival in the  mount of olives and celebrated the peace beween the two sides.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 128)

1051:The Gaon of Jerusalem,Shlomo ben yehuda die after 26 years in the important position.after him  Yosef the kohen ben Shlomo replced him,since Nathan ben avraham died before him.
but again a new contestor to the Gaon position rised to power.Daniel ben azaria was born in Bagdad and later moved to Cairo were he used his success in trade to contribute very gennerasly to the community,from 1045 he moved to Jerusalem in which again he devoted himself to contribute to the welfare of the community.Daniel was a descendet of the rosh hagola in babilonia,meaning that he was a descended of king  Kavid:and this gave him a great support:though this time the Kariats Jews supported Yosef and not him.for a year there was no Gaon in Jerusalem until the authorities in Cairo declared of him as the Gaon.

In the  around 10 years of him a the Gaon he was very proactive leader and in addition for him being a very wise scholar of the Torah,he was very profesional in logistic and this helped allot to the Jews in Jerusalem during those hard times.
Daniel the gaon had very good relation with the Jews in Spian and they contribute and donated generously to the community in Israel.
when Daniel; was appointed as the Gaon the  leader of the Jews in Spain,the Nagid  Samuel wrote for him a blessing poem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false

(page 131)
1060:The governor of Jerusalem is a Kariat Jew

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=onepage&q=Ijnadayn%20Lajjun&f=false
(PAGE 552)



1068 :Big earth quake dystroyed Ramla,Many Jews died from the 25,000 dead.

1071:The Saljuks conquer Israel and Babel as well.The Jews fled from Jerusalem to Tyre with their leader,The Gaon Elijah.
http://books.google.com/books?id=88Gqv4IBk_gC&pg=PA86&dq=GAON+OF+JERUSALEM&hl=ja&ei=_3eXTKTYDsmvcJHlnaQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=GAON%20OF%20JERUSALEM&f=false
(page 86)
The Seljuks ruled mailnly on the inside of the land  while they couldnt counqure the coastle area which was ruler by the  Egyptian Fatamids.This was the reason why later during the first crusade time most of the Jews in Israel would be living in the coastle area and not in Jerusalem,Ramla,Hevron and Tiberias.

1078:The Muslims of Jerusalem rebel against the Seljuks rulers,the Seljuk response by attcking the non-combat civilans as well,including the Jews and other non-Muslims.
Rabbi Shlomo ben Yosef hakohen descirbe the cuting of hears and noses,and striping of captives.rape of man and women,imposed starvation and lutting.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&ts=2010.11.20.21.16.21.420#31.7309.2.none
(PAGE 22)

1081:The Gaon Elijah declered his son Avitar(or evyatar)as his succesor and his other son,Shlomo as the av bet din(court master).
a year later the war in Israel setteled down a bit and all of the Jews in Israel gathered in Haifa and prayed on the mounth Carmel and wept for the exile of the yeshiva from Jerusalem.
the Gaon Elijah blessded the year and declered the agreed time of the hollydays of the opening year.
a year later in 1083 Elijah died and his son Avitar replaced him form Tyre.

How ever,very soon problems started again,the leader of the Jews in Egypt,David,the son of Danile ben azaria,which was only 4 years old when his father died,was proclaim the rosh gola and he merried a Kariat women,and very soon he saw himself as the succesor of Israeli Geonim,and even demand the right to decide the dates of the hollydays.
for 12 years he wrestle with Evitar ben Elijah until the foemer Nagid of Egypt,Mevurach ben azaria had him removed.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 135)
1090:The Gaon of Ramla is rabbi Avitor ben eliyau hakohen.
He would be the last leader of the Jews in Israel before the Crusaiders perod.
http://books.google.com/books?id=88Gqv4IBk_gC&pg=PA86&dq=GAON+OF+JERUSALEM&hl=ja&ei=_3eXTKTYDsmvcJHlnaQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=ABIATHAR%20&f=false
(page 91)

1092:More then Tiberia,Haifa become the most poppulted with Jews in the Galil.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=uDj9sNezWzEC&pg=PA316&dq=haifa+jews+crusades&hl=ja&ei=g4bFTI-jJ4eivQOakaTECA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 316)





The Crusaders occupation(1099-1260)

1099:The first Christian Crusade reach Israel.

A European league from mainly west Europe start by traveling from west Europe trough Asia minor and to Israel,On the way,They massacre many Jewish communities, Especially on the Rain river, in cities like Mainz,Worms and Speyer,the
 Ashkenazi Jews preferd to commite suicide instead of converting to Christianity.
the act of *kidush ashem* or martierisam for the sake of God,or refusing to commint any act that is strictly forbiden in the Jewish tradition  even in the price of death,is consider as a virtue among Jews, and  in many Jewish communities in Israel and all around the mediteranian mesianic groups started to apear,and their main aim was to find away to get to Israel.

Its satreted in 1097,And in 1098,The Fatimid conqured Jerusalem from the Saljuks,after 40 days of siege.
The Crusaiders found Ramla and jaffa deserted,And thats the reason why so many Jews escaped from the massacer:
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=STONES&f=false
(page 193)

Many Jews fled to Egypt or to Ashkelon,Like the Hebron and Jerusalem Jews.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=ASCALON%20JEWS%20FLED&f=false
(PAGE 207)
The Gaon Avitar eacaped with his yeshiva to Tyripoli in Syria,and he died there in 1112.later the yeahiva moved to Damascus and the Gaon was his brother,Sholomo.later his Shlomos son,Matsliach,was the Gaon up until 1120.with his death and later the death of the last Babilonian great sage,rabbi Hai Gaon in 1038,the Geonut period came to its end and the Torah center was shifted to Germany,France,and Spain,and only later in 1141 and 1155 with the arrivel of the great sage rabbi Yehuda halevi and rabbi Moshe ben mainon the Torah center in Israel would be restarted.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 135)

In Asia minor and Syria they created two states,Edesa and Antioc,And invaded Israel,Going first to Jerusalem and Bet lechem after conquering Yaffo as their port and Ramla,Which were abounded by the Muslim defenders.

The Crusader siege the Jerusalem for 5 weeks and then manage to enter it,Massacring the Muslims and all of the Jews.2000 Jews were closed in the synagogues and burned to death.
http://books.google.com/books?id=7ZijpKqZyyYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0486425193&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 48)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=STONES&f=false
(page 196)


there are reports that the time that the Jewish city of Ono near Yaffo was destoryed and its Jews were slain.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
.(PAGE 138)



The Jews in Jerusalem participated in the defence of the city toghter with the Muslims,and the survivers were later exiled to south Italy,Though only some of them reached Italy alive.

Others and their holy books were held as ransom,And the Kariat community in Ashkelon payed the ransom for their relies.

After the fall of Jerusalem,Many Jews fled homeless to Gaza and Ashkelom,And Egypt,While
others to Damascus, Tankard the crusadre, Established the princehood of the Galil after conquring the Galil,That was mainly populeted with Jews,Without much of resistance.

Beside the many refugees,there were thousands of captive Jews in the hand of the Crusaders.many of them were used to clean the many bodies from the streets of the destroyed towns.
the Jews of Cairo and Alexanderia originsed a project to save the captured Jews headed by the nagid of Egypt,Baruch ben Saadia already a month after the fall of Jerusalem.A speical messenger came to Ashkelon with the money,but those who were freed didnt had much place to go,they were left naked and penney less and starving form hunger.the jewish community of Ashkelkon,which was stile under Fatimid control,headed by Abu el fasel sahal ben yosha ben Shaya,orginised the ransoming of many captives and their rehabilitation.
However many freed Jews died on the way to Egypt,or died in Egypt from a plague.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&ts=2010.11.20.21.16.21.420#60.6263.2.none
(PAGE 50)


THE 12 CENTURY
1100:the Crusaders,Expel the people of Arsuf,And massacre the poepel of Cesaria.

It is reported that the defence of Haifa was mainly Jewish, and after a month of fighting most of the population,mainly Jewish were massacered.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=tgfMNfBIgSwC&pg=PA95&dq=HAIFA+CRUSADERS++JEWS&hl=ja&ei=p4SCTISaK5GKvQPfmP2EBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=HAIFA%20CRUSADERS%20%20JEWS&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=uDj9sNezWzEC&pg=PA316&dq=haifa+jews+crusades&hl=ja&ei=g4bFTI-jJ4eivQOakaTECA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 316)


1104:Acre is conqured,The population is massacered(4000 people)
In the begining,the Muslim rulers of Acre agreed to surrender in exchange for free and safe escape of all of the civilians,but the Genoas sailors opposed that agrrement and prevented  the civilians from getting out the city with their goods,and they massacred them.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&ts=2010.11.20.21.16.21.420#91.269.2.none
(page 81)
from Maimonides writings,its seems that many Jews returned later to live in Acre from 1011,including many Jews from France and north Africa.
from a letter between Jews from Acre to Jews in Egypt it can be learn that some Jews were divers that gathered shels with pearls from the sea.

1100-1144:The crusaders,And the new Christian kingdom in Israel,The kingdom of Jersalem,Defends itself against numerous Muslims attacks from Egypt and Syria,Until 1144 the prince hood of Antioch fall and the second Crusade start,And in 1149 eneded up in a failure to conquer Damascus.
During that time some of the Jews that fled from their towns and cities returned to live in it,the Jewish towns in the Galil for example were hardly harmed by the Crusadrs.The Crusaders didnt allow Jews to live in Jerusalem,but they didnt mind them living in other areas of the land.a good a example of that is Acre,Tyre and Ashkelon.
some cities that were dystroyed by the Crusaders were re-built and Jews were allowed to return to it,like Qesaria,Bet lechem,Lod,Bet govrin,and Nablus.
The Crusaders basicly discriminat between the Franks Christian to any other group like Muslims,Jews,Samaretans and also Esteren Greek Christians.From the other hand the humiliatinmg rules that the Muslims imposed of the Jews ,like waring a yellow badge and wear different close were canceled,and Jews could even testiufied in court against a cCristian or a Muslim.
Infact,there wont be another Christian massacre of Jews by the Crusaders in Israel,but on the same time there would be many violent massacres of Jews in west Europe.

1121:The deabte betwen Obadia,A Norman crusaider that converted to Judesam,And a Kariat name Solomon hakohen of Jerusalem  that proclaim himself the Meshiach,Ocured in Tyre.Obadaia was supprted financly by the Jews of Banias(on the sources of the jordan river,ancient Dan) and Damascus.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=1pkPt0uD708C&pg=PA130&dq=crusaiders+ceasaria&hl=ja&ei=M--eTKmmJYWavAPYzsCQDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 127)

1124:the city of Tyer fall to the hand of the Crusadrers,but the most Jews remaind in the city.later the Jews from the city will help the Jews from Egypt that were captured by the Crusaders.
1141:The famous Jewish philosopher from Spain,Yehuda halevi ,Famous for his poems and his master work, The Kuzari,Come to Israel with his son in law,Wishing to inspire other Jews to do the same .He died a year later. According to some sources, By a Muslim.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=643&letter=J&search=judah%20halevi#2221

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=STONES&f=false
(page 213)



1153:Ashkelon is conquered by the crusaders.The big Jewish community,Which had many refugees from the first crusade from various towns in Israel,Were expelled to El arish.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=x6LxAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA340&dq=Siege+of+Ascalon+1153&hl=ja&ei=cWsfTNycLsO5ceu_7YMN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=Siege%20of%20Ascalon%201153&f=false

(page 342).

1165:Rabbi Moshe ben maimom(Maimonides)escape from Spain and Morocco with his family,Come to Israel,But the oppression of the Jews push them to go to live in Egypt.In Israel they visit the temple mount in Jerusalem, And the fathers graves in Hevron
He and his descendedt celebrat the day(17 and 20 of October) of the visits to the holly palces,And it was celebrat by the Jews up until the 15 century,Since his decendets would lead the Jews in the near east,As the nagid,Up until that time.

http://books.google.com/books?id=5_PhkCPACSoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=maimonides&hl=ja&ei=03YfTMSHHsuGkAW9ndi6Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
In Israel,he met the Gaon of Acre,Rabbi Yefet ben eliyau.
Rabib Moshe maimon,Was a descendet of king David,Just like the Sanhedrin leaders of the Hillel dynesty
He was a very famous physician,And even served the Ayyubuid caliphs, Like Saladin.

He wrote several books about medicine.on the same time he was the leader of the Jewish community in Egypt,Israel and sirya,and helped solving problems in far away communities,like yemen..

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=kHxzDVn5aDUC&pg=PA12&dq=rabbi+moshe+ben+maimon+in+hebron&hl=ja&ei=QMk1TKCGEoHJcaGysLUE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE8Q6AEwCDgK#v=onepage&q&f=false
He wrote many important books, That serve as the basic for Jewish Halacha.
He wrote a full commentary for the mishna in 1161,based on the Talmud.He wrote it in Jewish-Arabic.

1168;Maimon help the Jews in Egypt that were captured by the Crusadors in their war against Egypt.the Jews from Trye help him,like rabbi Efraim ,rabi Haim,and rabbi Meir of karkasin.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#82.298.2.none
page 72
In 1177,He finish the Mishna tora,His commentary for the Talmud,Which he wrote in Hebrew. This important book was a reason for many argumenst in Jewish community both in Israel and in the disaspora,And only later with the writing of Shulchan aruch in Safed in the 16 century,Its legitimacy was accepted by all the Jews.

In 1191,He wrote his most important book,More nebochim,Which is a book of philosophy,That succed to logically explain the Jewish faith, A middle way between the Greek philosophy to the Jewish monotheism,
Rabi Moshe maimon is consider to be the most important Jewish rabbi ever, Only the Bible and Talmud sages are above him.
He died in 1205 and was buried in Tiberia,His son Avraham,Will contine the postion of the Nagid and his sons after would lead the Jews until 1415.
Avraham was the Nagid(head of the Jews,including Israel,Up until his death in 1237).
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=I94WDJZhiZwC&pg=PA81&dq=MAIMONIDES+SONS+NAGID&hl=ja&ei=nfyaTMPrD4_qvQP77rGPBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MAIMONIDES%20SONS%20NAGID&f=false
(PAGE 80)

1171:The Jewish traveler,Bejamin of Tudela,Come to Israel,And report in very detailes of the Jewish communities in Israel.He traveled all over the world,From spain to India and Rusia,From 1165 to 1173.
He  record 200 Jews in a Acre led by rabbi Yefet and rabbi Yona.
20 Jews in Cesaria.One Jew in Lidia.200 Jews in Jerusalem living near the tower of David.Two Jews in Bet lechem.(all Jews in the three cities worked as diers)3 Jews in Beit govrin.300 Jews in Shunam( in the Galil)2 Jews in Nov in Judea.3000 Jews in Ramla.One Jew in Yaffo.200 Jews in Ashkelon,Led by rabbi Tsemach,Aaron,and Shlomo.In Tiberia 50 Jews,Led by rabbi Avraham,Rabbi Mubtar,And rabbi Ishak.20 Jews in Gush halev,50 Jews in Meron.In Damascus he found 3000 Jews. In palemira he found 2000 Jews,That fight the Crusaders toghter with he Muslisms.In Alepo he found 5000 Jews.In Iraq he found even bigger communities.In Bagdad 40,000 and in Egypt 30,000.

http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2933&st=&pgnum=26

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=OrsMAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=benjamin+of+tudela&hl=ja&ei=dhmOTNDZLJG4vQPzsunnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=benjamin%20of%20todela&f=false
(page 63)


1185:The Jewish traveler,petchiya of rigunsberg, Come to Israel after touring East europe and Rusia. He also report on the little communities of Jews that survived the Crusaders massacres.
http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2933&st=&pgnum=46&hilite=

1187:After the battle of the Horn of Hitin, Near the sea of Galil, Where the Crusaders lose most of their army to Saladin, New ruler of the Ayyubid dynasty, That controlled both Syria and Egypt , The Muslims invaded the land and captured most of the castles ,Including Jerusalem. He allowed the Jews to return to live in Jerusalem.

http://books.google.com/books?id=NLsxDfIgSLMC&pg=PA320&dq=the+jews+return+to+jerusalem+in+1187&hl=ja&ei=qcIgTLnEMpWXkQXNwemTCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20jews%20return%20to%20jerusalem%20in%201187&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=KszvJSv7t30C&pg=PA71&dq=SELJUK+HAIFA&hl=ja&ei=sv6MTNmqCM25ccb36YYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE8Q6AEwCA#v=snippet&q=JEWS%20HAIFA&f=false
(PAGE 212)
Many Jews from Ashkelon and Gaza area,Which fled to there in 1099,Return to live in Jerusalem and Hevron.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(PAGE 6)
from the Jews that re-settled in Jerusalem right after its conquest by Saladin we can recal rabbi Avraham ben Shlomo of yemen,that buidled a syngogue in Jerusalem for the Yemen Jews
And also rabbi Saadia,that headed the Jews of Ashkelon.

Saladin also settled many Muslims from nort-west africa,the magrev in Jerusalem in trubite to their servic as soldiers.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&ts=2010.11.21.22.51.58.918#102.6143.2.none
page 91

The new Jewish community in Jerusalem that stayed in Jerusalem until they were expel from it in 1229,had a new big element,a group a Jews from west Europ.
1191:The third crusade, Led by king of England, Reoccupy Israel, And destroyed most of the Muslim army.In the peace agreement that was singed in Yafo, The Christian kingdom become a narrow state on the coast, With permission to pilgrim in Jerusalem.

THE 13 CENTURY
1209:300 Jewish rabbis And their scholars and their families return from England and france,And settled in Acre,The new capital of the Christian state.
The 300 rabbis were called the Tosfot,And were the most important rabbis at that time.
The 300 rabbis participated in comentaring on 30 chapters in the Babilonian Talmud and on the Rashi(rabbi shlomo itshaki,The most important Ashekenazi rabbi)commentary on the Talmud. What they did was to assembled all the commentary about a specific chapter ever since the Talmud was sealed,And base their decision on that.
The king of Jerusalem,Jan de brain sign the authorization letter to them to settle in Acre and in Jerusalem..

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=98LRo54Lcw8C&pg=PA158&dq=acre+jewish+community+in+1211&hl=ja&ei=Zs4gTPPsKcKwceyuoCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=acre%20jewish%20community%20in%201211&f=false

(page 158)
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(PAGE 9)
The ledears of the rabbis that return to Israel were rabbi Shimson of Sens,And rabbi Jonatan of Lunil,Both were friends with rabbi Maimon, Though rabbi Shimson of Sens opposed Maimon's oppinons ,While rabbi Jonatan suppurted his oppinons.Any how,The Jewish community of Acre was one of the main opposition to accepting the Maimonid teaching.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ACRE%20%20RABBI&f=false
(PAGE 267)
In Jersualem the leader if the Jews from Fance and Germany was rabbi Yosef ben baruch.
The arrival of Jewish pilgrims to Israel,the homeland of the Jewish people,was a commom thing,but the mass returning of Jews from the exile to Israel with their spiritual leadrs leading them was a new thing ,and many Jews from different communities were very anxious about it

1210:rabbi Shmuel ben shimon vist in Israel,and joined the gead of the Jews in Babylonia,David ben zakai.he travel in the Galil and find 15 Jewish towns,that around 550 people live in each one of them.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#86.6173.2.none
PAGE 76

1217:The Jewish poet from Spain,Yehuda el harizi, Visit Jersauelm,And show his sadnness for where once the holy temple stud there is a
 an alien temple now.
http://books.google.com/books?id=rbT7Vur2ZTwC&pg=PA120&dq=nachmanides+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=7t8gTLSIC4GgkQXAha0U&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nachmanides%20in%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 115)
.He also report about the renew of the Jewish presencee in Jerusalem,that started in 1187 with Saladin conquest of the city.
there were three communities.one was the Jews that came from Ashkelom,among  them many of the descendets of the survivors and refugees from Jerusalem and Hevron.the others were Jews from Moroco and Spain and the others were Jews from France.
el Harizi usualy ridiculs in his weriting the Jews and the people that he met,but in this case he call them angels,rightus people,exelents,imoportant.
this show how important was th ereturn of the jews to jerusalem was in the eyes of that period people.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&ts=2010.11.21.22.51.58.918#99.134.2.none
(page 89

1219:During the 5th Crusade ,The Ayyubys dismental and destroyed most of walls of Jerusalem, And its Jews flee from the city.a year later the city fall again to christian hands and the remaining Jews are either slain or scatered.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(page 6)

1229:The 6th Crusade.The German emperor, Fredrick II, Become the king of Jerusalem through marriage, And invade Israel.The internal tensions between the Ayyubid kings,Make them avoid conflicts and they singe a peace agreement That give Jerusalmn and Beit lechem to the Christians.

1235:Rabbi Yaakov,An Israeli rabbi,Is send by his rabbi,Rabbi Yechiel of Paris,To collect donations to the Yeshiva in Acre from Europe.Befroe that he tour

1237:David,The grandson of rabbi Moshe Maimon,become the Nagid for 60 years.
He was succesfull in stoping the Egyptians sultans plan to forced the Jews under their control to convert to Islam by paying an expensive ransom with the generous help of the Europian Jews..
He was later disposed from his position by the sultans ans someone else replaced him.He went to Israel,Which was then under Christian occupaion.In Israel he succesfully defendet his granfather's against thouse who wished to ban his books,Like some Jews in Acre for example.
After that he returned to Egypt and resum his position as Nagid until is death in 1300.His brother Obadaia,Aas also a famouse scholler and died in 1265.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=I94WDJZhiZwC&pg=PA81&dq=MAIMONIDES+SONS+NAGID&hl=ja&ei=nfyaTMPrD4_qvQP77rGPBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MAIMONIDES%20SONS%20NAGID&f=false
(page 81)

1244:The Khawarimis,Soldiers from the eastern kingdom that was destroyed by the Mongols, Conquered Jerusalem and massacres its Christians.Most Jews from the area flee to Nablus while other are killed.On the same year,In the battle of Hirbiya,The Crusaders lose to the Muslims and lose most of their army.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=vJZm9amnoAoC&pg=PA91&dq=nablus+jews+1244&hl=ja&ei=zByOTKThH4m8vgP89fHnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nablus%20jews%201244&f=false
(page 91)
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(page 10)

1254:The 7th Crusade.After the French king lose in Egypt,But couse the Ayyubid dynesty to fall and replaced by the Mamluks,He fortified many cities in the coaste cities with great expence.

1260:Rabbi Yechiel of Pariz,Is establishing a Yeshiva in Acre with his many followers.
The rabbi is famous for his brave role in the Paris trial,Where he defended in 1242 the Jewish faith against Christian accusations.
In Israel he tried to advocate the renewal of the sacrifice worship in Jerusalem,But it seem that his death in 1267 put the plan to a halt.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=STONES&f=false
(PAGE 296)

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=191&letter=J


On the same time,Rabbi Abulafia come to Acre,But the Mongol invasion scare him away.The rabbi would later become a very important Kabalist.
During that time Jerusalem is attacked by the Mongols and its Jews are either slain or scattered.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=vJZm9amnoAoC&pg=PA91&dq=nablus+jews+1244&hl=ja&ei=zByOTKThH4m8vgP89fHnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 91)

1259-1286:A wave Jews returning to Israel from Germany and France.It is driven by both religouse belives,Expectations for a beter period for the Jews in Israel after the demise of the Crusaders,And mainly by harsh persucution of the Jews in westren Europe by the Christians in Germany,Spain,Englad,France and Italy.
Many Jews settle in Acre and Jaffa area.
The wave is stopped when the greatest rabbi of that time,Rabbi Meir of Ruthenburg,Is being arrested by the Christains and a heavay ransom is imposed on his relise,Which the Jews failed to come by and the rabbi died in jail,And the Jews in Germany are restricted from leaving the country to go to Israel.Only 60 years later when most of westren Europe Jews would be massacred and expelded ,The sorviovos Jews would have an opportunity to leave those countries and go back to Israel.
http://books.google.com/books?id=gAFJVy6GPHkC&pg=PA58&dq=MEIR+OF+ROTHENBURG+1286+ISRAEL&hl=ja&ei=uYqsTM3FG4PBcbT0_aQE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MEIR%20OF%20ROTHENBURG%201286%20ISRAEL&f=false
(page 58)
http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA296&dq=1259+palestine&hl=ja&ei=oo2sTMfsC4K4cfK__dIE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=1259%20palestine&f=false
(page 296)
1260:in the battle of Ein jalut,The Mamluks led by Baiberis,Defeat the Mongol invaders.
From this point the mamluks would be the actual rulers of Israel and the area.

The Mamluk occupation(1260-1517)

1265-1271:The Mamluks,Led by Bibares destroy all the coast cities beside Gaza.The entier coastle area until Acre would be deserted up until the 19 century.Ceasria,Arsuf,Ashkelon,And later Jaffa and Acre too,Were be dystroied and their port were seiled.The fact that coastle area was deserted and in ruins ,that its surronding were malaria infested swamps was a major factor in the history of the land,And it would be later in the end of the 19 century a major factor the Jewish re-settellment of the land.

1266:Bibres called the Jews to resetelled Israel and especilay Jerusalem but on the same time forbid non-Muslims to enter the holy palces in Jerusalem and Hebron.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=1xUV-nMxNGsC&pg=PA402&dq=Baibars+forbid+jews&hl=ja&ei=YRuOTM_dB5TsvQOX8fDnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 402)
He also settled other Muslim soldiers like Kurds and Turkemans on the coast liine ,In kakun and qara for example.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=dIaFbxD64nUC&pg=PA70&dq=MAMLUKS+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=NOCtTMjVFYSevQPM7ZXxBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MAMLUKS%20GAZA&f=false
(PAGE 70)

the Mamluks administartion syetem was that: all the land was divided to land that was given to Mamluks oficers to rule and get their profit from Mamluk soldiers that and refugees from Syria and iIaq that fled from the Mongols.
all of the administration was in the hands of the Mamluks that spend their youth as slave-soldiers ubtil they earn their position to be incharge of a fief.

1267:Rabbi Moshe ben nachman,A Sephardi rabbi,come to Israel,And restore the Jewish community in Jerusalem,despite the absence of defence walls.
He describe the land as aboundant in ruins,the land is mainnly deserted he writes to his brother,every place that is hollier then the other,is more in ruins then the other.
The Christian traveler felix fabri report the same situation in  1480,200 years later.he said the land could be fertile if there were only people to develop its land.
The rabbi mixed Sepharadi and Ashkenazi philosophy.In his famous commentary to the Bible,He was more favorite to Rashi then maimon.

He also wrote a commentary on the Talmud,And in other books he critic and answer other important rabbis.

He was famous for the Barselona debate, In 1263,In which he defeated the christians accusations,Though the Christians expelled him from Spain.

In Israel he restored the Jewish synagogue in the Jewish curter in the old city,Which would be the only Jewish synagogues in Jerusalem for hundreds of years.he resotored with the help of the Jewish family of diers that the Crusaderrs allowed to dwell in the city despite the general band on Jews from living in Jerusalem.(The Jews of Israel were famouse for their skill in dieing textail for many years since the Hellenist period)

http://books.google.com/books?id=rbT7Vur2ZTwC&pg=PA120&dq=nachmanides+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=7t8gTLSIC4GgkQXAha0U&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nachmanides%20in%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 120)
Rabbi Nachmans chief disciple was the famous kabalist,Rabbi Itshak of Acre,That is famous for clamming that the world age is more then 15 bilion years,700 years before modern science would get to that conclusion

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wcbInOxGeNUC&pg=PA171&dq=rabbi+yitzhak+world+age+kabbalah+42,000&hl=ja&ei=F_6lTPrMLIugvgOKq8HyDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 171)
During that time the Sapharadi rabbi,Moses de leon publish the most important book in the Kabala ,the Zohar.which according to him it was found in  a cave in the Galil and was actually written 1200 years before that by the important sage,Rabbi Yochanan ben zakai,But according to rabbi Isthak fo acre,De leon wrote the book himself.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 6)
This show what an important position did the Jewish community in Acre played in in the Jewish world and on the Kabala.

1289:Rabbi Shlomo patit of Acre ban the reading of the books of rabbi maimon.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Q3uc8zB5FRoC&pg=PA137&dq=rabi+shlomo+patit&hl=ja&ei=s-EgTKDYFc6LkAWsi_DqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 153)



1291:The last crusade city in Israel, Acre,Is captured by the Mamluks that destroy it and most of its big Jewish community spread all over the country. Though the Jews participated in the defence of the city,some of them were spare by the Muslims,Exept the wise elders that are reported to be killed to the last of them.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=YvBynNte54YC&pg=PA86&dq=acre+jews+1291&hl=ja&ei=yRYiTPz8ForJcbut5BQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=acre%20jews%201291&f=false
(page 86)

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=3St6D8PC4tcC&pg=PA91&dq=acre+jews+1291&hl=ja&ei=thciTOevEMf0cLDY4Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=WymBjcss8JkC&pg=PA131&dq=MOSES+DE+LEON+ACRE&hl=ja&ei=L_qlTM2HKIWwvgOCrpmmDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MOSES%20DE%20LEON%20ACRE&f=false
(page 131)

1295:The book Shaari zion is written in Hebron by one of rabbi Abulaifia scholers,Rabbi Shem tov.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Q3uc8zB5FRoC&pg=PA137&dq=rabi+shlomo+patit&hl=ja&ei=s-EgTKDYFc6LkAWsi_DqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hebron&f=false
(page 107)

THE 14 CENTURY

1300:The Mongols,Led by ghazan,Shortly take control over the country,Until they retreat after 5 month's.Some deserters from the mongol army were alowwed to settle in the land,in the Atlit area.

1301:the Muslims in Israel forced the Jews to wear yellow bands.
1303:
1300:Avraham II,Succeeds his father as the Nagid  until 1310.

1310:After avraham II the Nagid dies,His two sons,Salomo(Shmuel)and Joshua serve as the Nagid.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=-w46AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA50&dq=maimonides+descendants+jushua&hl=ja&ei=RXubTMSIG4vevQOT9MzuBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 50)

1313-1337:Rabbi Ishtori parchi ,Of France,Return to live in Israel.He was a physician and topographer and is famous for is brilliant work called,kaftor vaperach,A book that describe the land of Israel,And identified its old Biblical and Talmudic period towns.
His main companion was rabbi Baruch of Jerusalem
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(page 16)
He was a good friend of the Nagid at that time,Rabbi Shmuel,which was rabbi Maimons sons grandson.

In his book which was written in Hebrew,That is based on 7 years of traveling in every single settlement in the land,He identified 180 places mention in the Bible.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PR4&dq=ishtori&hl=ja&ei=BCSOTJnOO4GsvgPw39TnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=ishtori&f=false
(page 13)
Ishtori also report on the poor condition of the Jews in the land*:If a Jew is in debt to a non-Jew,Like from a loan or from the the pol tax and other taxes that the Muslim impose on Jews under their control annually,The poor that have nothing to pay is arrested until he is ransomed by his brothers,Or beaten to death by a rod.And this is why there is not a higher Mitsva(good deed)then ransoming the abductants and all of the people of Israel are ordered to participate in it*

.http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?sits=1&req=32812&st=%u05e4%u05d3%u05d9%u05d5%u05df
(page 211)

1322:rabbi Ishtori publish his 700 pages master work,kaftor vaperach in Jerusalem

1337:Rabbi Yaakov hilo return to live in Israel.He describe Jerusalem with big Jewish community from france,That study Tora day and night.He also describe old towns in Judea populated with a few Jews, Like Eitam,Halhul,and in Hebron he found many Jews ,Many of then work in the glass and wool industry,And pray day and night in the synagoug.In Arab near Hebron he found a few Jewish shepherd.

In the coastle area he found Gamzu,With many Jews in it.In Ramla he also found many Jews.He also report on rich Jews in Yafo,Though the city is mainly destroyed.

He also found Jews in Geva and Shilo north of Jerusalem,And in Nablus.He also found some Jews in Cesaria,And many more in Haifa,

He report on many dystroyed Jewish towns in the Galil,Though he found small communities that dwell near important graves of old sages,Like in Tiberia,Sachnin,And Tsipori.he also describe a very big Jewish community in Safed, And in Gush halev,And Sasa.
He also report that many Jews that escaped from France and Germany lived in Haifa.
http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2933&st=&pgnum=78

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA304&dq=mongols+jews+1299+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=LSGOTJiNK46gvgPM78nnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=mongols%20jews%201299%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 307)

1348:the black plague hit Israel and many poeple in the cities perish.the nomad Bedouin used that opportunity to plunder the fildes and take control over the roads:
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 175)
According to the reports,all the main cities were harmd,and every settelment that had a standing water supply was desserted,in many cases peremently.In april 1348,about 22,000 people died from the plauge in the Gaza area.
its interesting that Muslim reporters about the plage describe the plauge in Ramla and Gaza as plaug in towns in Syria,or a-sham,which is show how for Muslims at that time,the land wasnt a different part of Syria.

1349:The Jews of Jerusalem and Hebron flee the city fearing a Bedouin invasion.

1350:A big Ashkenazi Jewish grope led by rabbi Beilshtian settled in Jerusalem.From that time and on,With the black death in Europe and the horrible massacre of Jews that followed it,Many European Jews return to live in Israel,In 1400 the Ashkenazim bought a yard and in it a synagogue and a yeshiva.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=SrMUAQAAIAAJ&q=1350+jews+jerusalem&dq=1350+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=hkCOTLG0C4_cvQPPkYzoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwATgU
(page 321)
http://books.google.com/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA234&dq=JEWS+CRUSAIDERS+GALIL&hl=ja&ei=H4CXTL68I8HJcZr_2aQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 234)
The folowers of rabbi Isthak halevi beilshtain called themself *the hopeful* and focused of the study of the kabala,And in Jersualem studied from the Sapharadi Jews many of the kabala secrets that were unfamilar to the Jews in Ashkenaz.
From his scholars there is rabbi Avraham Levi and rabbi Menachem ben meir zion and after them rabbi shimon ben shmuel.
Some Jewish comunities in Austria and Germany collected donation especialy for them.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 176)
.
1355:The Nagid is David II,That would later move to Damascus.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=I94WDJZhiZwC&pg=PA35&dq=MAIMONIDES+SONS&hl=ja&ei=8XubTIOhK4O0vgPS1N3vBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=JOSHUA&f=false
(PAGE 81)

1391:The oppression of the Jews in Spain drive many of then to return to Israel,And they dwell in Jerusalem,Gaza,Hevron, And Safed.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=CaK6DeZXX7sC&pg=PA245&dq=1391+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=PaCVTJD0M5LEvQOu9_iZDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=1391%20jews%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 245)

THE 15 CENTURY


1400:The Mongols invade the near east again, By Timurlang.The Mongols conquer Syria,And massacre the inhabits of Damascus,Among then many Jews.Many refugees flee to south to Israel and settled in it.The Mongols retreat in 1405.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=AhasMr2F3i8C&pg=PA282&dq=timur+lang+1400&hl=ja&ei=5EUjTOfyE8aXcfP2xaoF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=timur%20lang&f=false


1415;The last Nagid in Cairo,A decedent of the rabbi Maimon,Move to Syria, And the Nagid position is replaced by rich Jews from Egypt.
this lack of a specific leading personality that its autority is generaly accepted is one of the reasons why the Jewish communty in Jerusalem
got into some serious financial trubles that coused great sufering to its Jews up until the 20 century.

The last Nagid,david II,Was also a physician.

http://books.google.com/books?id=QH3BHQulNpsC&pg=PA23&dq=nagid&hl=ja&ei=010nTKTbIdGIkAWjmOR2&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=nagid%20mimonides&f=false




1427:The Jews and Christians argue about the ownership over Mount Zion.For the Jews,It is king Davids grave,And for the Christians it’s the place where the *last super* took place.Eventually,The Mamluks prevent from both Jews and Christians to enter the place in and in it 1452 it become a Muslim.

As a result of the conflict over the ownership over the Mounth Zion,the Christian pope,Martinus VI In 1428,Forbid any Christian ship  from transposrting  Jews to the land of Israel.however it seem that during that time,from 1428 until 1485 more Jews from Italy and Germany came to live in Israel then before.some of them used Franch or Genoen ships,but many traveled on the Denova river or trough Poland until the black sea and from there to Israel.

1441:A famine in Jerusalem and the poor condition of the city,And the heavy taxes,Forces 100 Jewish families from Jerusalem to live elsewhere,especialy in Gaza and Egypt.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=242&letter=J&search=Musta'arabi Jews#932


http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=ysfzQsWbfDMC&pg=PT24&dq=mount+zion+christian+dispute&hl=ja&ei=HlEjTPuOJcmrcbfazbEF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=mount%20zion%20christian%20dispute&f=false

1452:The Muslims in jerusalem decied to exeple the Jews from jerusalem and Hevron.After many bagging and alot a bribe that was payed,a fine of 100,000 golden florin was imposed all over the Jews of Israel inorder to cancel the expel,From which 10,000 was payed by the Jews of Jerusalem.The elders of Jerusalem had to borrow money from their Muslim and Christian negibores in very high intrest,and very soon had to sell allmost all of the property that the community had,And large amount of items that were donated to the community from Jews from far away community like Poland and Russia.

1470:Rabbi Saadia adani return from Yemen to Israel,And settle in safed.

1474:The Muslims in Jerusalem destroyed the Jewish synagogue in the Jewish curter.The Jews were allowed to rebuild it,After paying a lot of ransom and bribe to the Mamluk clerks,But after 120 years,The Ottomans will destroy the synagogue, Because building news synagogues is against the Omar laws,From 715.The Jews suffering from the heavy debts they have were only resulted in the 19 century.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=X0jH6VPi4-gC&pg=PA221&dq=jerusalem+synagog+1474&hl=ja&ei=YlMjTNeBL83JcfC6tKQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20synagogue&f=false
(PAGE 315)
An Ashkenazi messenger name rabbi Moshe twentyfour was sent to varius communities in north Italy to collect the money for the Jews of Jerusalem.Rabbi Yosef kolon,that would later be the head of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem when the Ottoamn conquer the land,helped him.

1479: The Bedouins attack jerusalem and even enter the temple mount .

1481:The Bedouins attack Ramla and its Jews.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=AhasMr2F3i8C&pg=PA283&dq=ramla+1481&hl=ja&ei=voCbTPbOKYiiuQPt1cXeBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=ramla%201481&f=false
(page 283)

1482:Rabbi Meshulam of Voltera visit in Israel. He described the trade lines from Egypt to Gaza,The only remaining port in Israel,And how the Mamluks secure it,Because of the Bedouin raids. He report that movement from one place to another in the country was only possible in big caravans of over a 1000 people.He also report how being dress and act like an Arab is essential for security reasons,Since Jews and foreigners are being attacked and mugged.

http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2933&st=&pgnum=96&hilite=ed.



He tells about the good wine of Gaza,Which was made only by Jews.

1485-87:The olive oil ordeal.The Mamluk rulers force all of the inhabitants of Jerusalem and Hebron to buy olive oil from Nablus in expensive price,While the late to pay are arrested and flogged.The ordeal repeat itself two years later in Gaza  and Ramla as well,up until 1495,in which even Muslims were forced to pay dubble for the praise of soup and sugar,unless they were beaten to death.
http://books.google.com/books?id=NBBMJJTEoKMC&pg=PA154&dq=JEWS+MAMLUKS+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=JIOXTK_LGcvJcbuQvaQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 153)
This  event is the reason why some Jewish families fled Hevron and muved to Egypt
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=ishtori&f=false
(PAGE 16)
During that time rabbi Yosef demontie*the parnas*(the provider) the Ashkeanzi from Venice come to Jerusalem and very quicly help the community to get better.

1485:Rabbi Ovadia of Bertinoro travel in Israel.He was appointed the leader of the Jews in Jerusalem, He also dwelt in Hevron for a while. Before he came there was a dispute between the elders to the Nagid rabbi Natan,And he fled to Egypt.

He met Jews in Gaza,Hevron,In Jerusalem he find many of the Jews that were forced to convert to Christianity in Spain.And now return to the Israeli fate.
In Gaza he is entertained by the Ashkenazi rabbi Moses of Pargue that moved from Jerusalem to Gaza after being harassed by the Arabs
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=8YMrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA135&dq=MOSES+OF+PRAGUE+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=btWtTNbCO42gvgOdtv3XBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=MOSES%20OF%20PRAGUE%20GAZA&f=false
(PAGE 135)
He describe though the poorness of the Jews in Jerusalem and their defenselessness against the Muslims authorities. in one time, a Muslim killed his own mother,And after saying that he was drunk,The court fined the Jewish community for *selling the wine*,With no proof or connection.

http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2933&st=&pgnum=118


http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=242&letter=J&search=Musta'arabi Jews#932


He also mention the fear and the insecurity in the roads and the Bedouin constant attacks.

1492:In the end of the Mamluk period,And just before the great wave a Jews that will return to live in Israel from Spain and Portugal,The Jewish community was led by rabbi Itshak,And the Sepharadim rabbi was David shusham,And the Ashkenazim rabbi was Yosef kolon.

http://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2594&st=&pgnum=212




1500:The Nagid in Egypt,Which is the leader of the Jews in the near east,Is rabbi Natan's son,Itshak sholal.He will financialy support many of the Jews returning from the exile in Spain and Portugal and will help them to become the dominant society of Israel .He held his position until the Ottomans canceled the Nagid position in 1517. He died later in a plague in 1526.
He was the founder of the famous master work of rabbi Ishtori,kaftor vaperach
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=ishtori&f=false
(PAGE 15)
Rabbi Sholal also encourage other Jewish scholars from Egypt and to return to live in Jerusalem and Safed
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(PAGE 24)

1509:The famous kabalist,Rabbi Albotini come to Jerusalem from Portugal.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Q3uc8zB5FRoC&pg=PA137&dq=rabi+shlomo+patit&hl=ja&ei=s-EgTKDYFc6LkAWsi_DqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=JERUSALEM&f=false
(page 110)

1513:Rabbi Avraham zekut ,The famous Jewish scientist that helped Christopher Columbus to discover America,Return to live in Jerusalem from Spain.

http://www.maa.org/mathland/mathtrek_10_09_06.html
How ever,As the Mamluk period came to an end,Already in 1513,The security situation in the cities in Israel was very bad,And the Jews suffered allot from that.Zakuto,Together with another important Kabala sage,Abraham halevi,Are recorded as the most impoverished persons In Jerusalem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA138&dq=1513+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=UfqmTLeVCorcvQOH-)LjhDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=1513%20jerusalem&f=false
(PAGE 139)
This poor situation is also comfirmed by another Christian traveler,Matrin kevetnik, from 1495,that report that the Jews and Christian in Israel are forced to dress like beggers,and they are not allowed to wear any good close,and eve use silver or copper dishes in their houses.

Rabbi david ben Zimara that would later be the great leader of the Jewish community in Egypt,And then later the leader of the Jews in Jerusalem,Also fled the city at that time to Egypt.

The Ottoman occupation(1517-1917)1516-17:The Ottoman empire conquered Israel,Syria,Egypt together with all of the Middle east,And encourage many of the Jews that were expelled in Spain to settle in Israel and in Jerusalem.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA21&dq=Bayezid+I+jews&hl=ja&ei=i3QlTJuKMoXRcdyx9O8C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Bayezid%20I%20jews&f=false

1517:The Small Jewish community in Hevron in destroyed in an Arab riot.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA243&dq=MALKIEL+ASHKENAZI+HEBRON&hl=ja&ei=5cWLTPKbJ4X0vQP_4owY&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=HEBRON&f=false
(page 24)

The Jewish community in Safed suffer from the Ottoman-Mamluk supporters battles and many are slain.Many of them fled naked to the nearby villages.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=POPPULATION&f=false

(page 97)

1517:Rabbi Yaakov berav from Spain,Move from Jerusalem to Safed.Until 1546 he will study from many of the important rabbis.He was a very bright rabbi,And already in the age of 18 was appointed a rabbi in Spain.

1518:Rabbi Moshe of Trani,Become the leader of the big Jewish community in Safed.,Many of then are Jews exiled from Spain.

1520:The Ottomans rebuild the walls of Jerusalem.this change the situation in Jerusalem,from a very vournable and un secured town during the Mamluk period,to a safe city to live.this encourage many Jews,and Muslim too,to settle in it.
1520:Rabbi Yehiel ashkenazi move back to Israel from Italy.he become the leaders of the Ashkenazi Jews in Jerusalem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA152&dq=ibn+susan&hl=ja&ei=3Kq9TNzwMY6yuAOk98Eq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ibn%20susan&f=false
(PAGE 152)

1521:Rabbi Moshe basula visit in Israel.In his writing he report on the big Jewish city of Safed,And its strong wool and textile industry.,

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA160&dq=jacob+ibn+habib&hl=ja&ei=3XslTIaFFY-lcdiZ2McC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=safed&f=false




1523:-Shlomo molko,A Jew in origin that his parents were forced to convert to Christianity in Spain,And he was burn a Christian,Return to Judaism,After meeting the mysteries David hareuveni,And fearing Christian persecution,He fled to the Ottoman empire and travel around in Israel,Promising Jews that the Geula(liberation) will come in 1540.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA157&dq=DAVID+HAREUVENI&hl=ja&ei=QUOaTO6jBIOIvgP3goXdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=DAVID%20HAREUVENI&f=false
(PAGE 157)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA97&dq=MURAD+III+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=gQ-eTKTADIOYvAP6qbyqDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 189)
Hareuveni was probably the first Jew after the middle ages that openly talked about the re-establishing of the Jewish state in Israel and the return of all the exiled Jews to their homeland Israel.
How ever,When he met rabbi Shollal in Jerusalem in 1523 the rabbi didnt belived Harehuvenis mystic stories about a far away Jewish kingdom of the tribe of Reuven,And send letters to communities all over the world warning them from David hareuveni
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 24)
Though he was accepte  by the Pope at that time,In Germany,That was under the control of the Spanish emporer,Charles V,He was arrested and togehter with David hareuveni is executed by fire.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=714&letter=M&search=shlomo molko


1524:Rabbi Yosef Caro,Write in Safed,His famous book,Shulchan aruch,The most important halacha book in the Israeli fate,That base its decision on comparison on every subject on three decrees:
Rabbi Maimon(1138-1205)rabbi Elfasi(1013-1103)and rabbi Asher(1259-1327).

Rabbi yosef caro was considered a high authority not just in Israel and the near east,But by Jews far away in France and Poland:

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=188&letter=C&search=yosef caro

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=paltiel+hanagid&source=bl&ots=1aATDktqk6&sig=Q69sG8Pr655o-LWtNDwoAiBB81c&hl=ja&ei=8R8eTO3xKIOeceyUhPUM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 227)

1535:Rabbi Shlomo alkabets,write in Safed,the famous Shabat song:Lecha dodi.
He lives up until 1584.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=NFFqidUW6esC&pg=PA88&dq=The+Secret+Teaching+of+R.+Shlomo+Halevi+Alkabetz&hl=ja&ei=enslTK7-Ds-wcYnuwMEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false


1536: Rabbi Yosef caro become the great rabbi of Safed.He will lead until 1575.
With his help,The Jews established a big fortres in Safed for the protection against the local Arabs.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=safed&hl=ja&ei=IVOOTOHoMIHUvQOlv8XnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=poppulation&f=false
(PAGE 60)

1538: Rabbi Berav of Safed ordinate new rabbis, To serve as an official religious leadership of the Jews in Israel,Just like the Sanhedrin were,In replace of the Nagid position.
This move anger many of the rabbis in Jerusalem, Especially rabbi Levi ben haviv.
Rabbi birab ordinate rabbi caro, Rabbi Trani, Rabbi Sagis, Rabbi Shalom,Rabbi
Kordovo, And rabbi Curiel.They will later ordinate their scholars as rabbis them self.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=242&letter=J&search=jerusalem#936
One of the main the aims of the rabbi Berab plan to renew the ordination of rabbis in Israel,The Beit din(the court),Beside the clear ambition to have an orginised leadership for the Jewish people in the holly land to replace the Nagid position,Was to take care of the problem of the Maranus.Many  many Jews in Spain and Portugal were expeled from it while many other were forced to accept Christianity just in order to stay a live,And once they had an oppurtunity to flee from Spanish control they escape and openly return to practice the father traditions.How ever,The acceptance of a different fate other then the Israeli fate was punishable with divine excommunication,That only lashes can erased that sin,But in order to deceid how many lashed each person have to get in order to be clean from his sin,Only a beit din(Jewish court)can decide on that,And this is why rabbi Berab wanted to renew the Jewish court
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 29)
The argument between those who opposed the ordination to those who supported it continued without any side giving up,But *thanks* to much greater problems like the continues occupation and oppresion of the Jews and their poverty and over taxation that was imposed on them in Israel,Very soon the Jews had to put that  a side and work togehter

1538:rabbi Isaschar ben mordechai is the leader of the north african Jews in Safed.he moved back to Israel in the 30s,and moved from Jerusalen to Safed,in which he stayed until his death.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA152&dq=ibn+susan&hl=ja&ei=3Kq9TNzwMY6yuAOk98Eq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ibn%20susan&f=false
(page 152)


1539:The Ottomans finish the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bWjwcoSdoiAC&pg=PA139&dq=ottoman+empire+rule+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=8HIlTO_wL8PIca3jocEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=walls%20of%20jerusalem&f=false
during that year,the ottomans count the population in the land and a big growth in the Jewish population in Hebron and Gaza ,nablus and kfar kana.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=halhul&f=false
(page 24)

1541:Rabbi Levi ben haviv,The leader of Jerusalem,Died.His major scholar,Rabbi Caster,Succeed him in leading the Jews in Jerusalem.shortly after that rabbi shlomo shirilio succeed him until 1558.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 30)

1548:The Ashkenazi rabbi of Jerusalem is kalman kalonymus of Brisk.
From his name it can be learned that he was a descended of the famous kalonnymus family,That was invited by the Frankish kings to move from Italy to Germany,And was the base from which the Ashkenazi Jews grow(during the 9 century).
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=E2_ag8xGWMQC&pg=PA131&dq=kolel+warsaw+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=zymOTNSaC4aavgP_ovnnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 126)

1542:Rabbi Moshe kordovo of Safed developed a new system in the Jewish mysticism,The Kabala.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA160&dq=jacob+ibn+habib&hl=ja&ei=3XslTIaFFY-lcdiZ2McC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=Moses%20ben%20Jacob%20Cordovero&f=false

1553:Rabbi David ben zimra returned to Jerusalem from Egypt.He was one of the most important rabbis in the near east,But the Arabs in Jerusalem harassed him until he left to Safed,Where he was welcomed with great respect'by rabbi caro too) and died later in 1573.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA31&dq=jerusalem+jews+first+ashkenazi&hl=ja&ei=N0OOTOeHGpG6vQPBy-DnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20jews%20first%20ashkenazi&f=false
(page 30)


1555:Rabbi Israel najara is born in Safed.He will transfer famous Mediterranean songs into famous prayers and belief songs.

He live in Safed,Gaza,And later in Sirya until 1628:

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Israel%20ben%20Moses%20Najara&f=false


1555:The famous Anacona boycott occurred.Don yosef nasi,A Portugalian Jew that was forced to convert to Christianity,Move to the Ottoman empire and use his power and wealth to stop the execution of Jews that were forcibly converted to Christianity,And after being caught observing Judaism,Were convicted with heresy.The rabbis of Safed,Through their colleges in Tesaloniki,Supported him.Especialy rabbi Caro.
The boycott of Anacona port failed and the Jews were executed by the Christians.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA236&dq=don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=T4AlTMy_Noi-cfL6tb0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false

1556:The Ottoman  sultan is protecting the Jews in Israel from ilegal opression by the Muslims in Israel.
 He recive a compliant that Jews  in Jerusalem,Safed and Tiberias are being falsely charge with coursing of the Muslim fate and their children are being threatened to be forced to convert to Islam.The oppresors ,in order to extort money from the Jews ,both complian on the Jews and both serve as *witneses* to the Jews *disrespect*.The Jews are also forced to evacuet their houses for army units,and are being forced to work in forced labor ,including in the Jews holy days,lead them to exile or forced labor,and take away their food.The sultan was very angry to here that.
On another occasion the sultan hear that Jews that come to pilgrim in Jerusalem,Hevron,and nabi Samuel,are oppresed by the soldiers.
The officers charge the Jews exepensive and ilegal passing tax,beating the passengers and randomly arrest them for no reason.
The sultan send a letter to the governors of occupied Israel asking them to stop this.But as history shows,those sort of petty oppresion of the Jews in Israel were common up until the end of the 19 century.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA220&dq=%D7%99%D7%94%D7%95%D7%93%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%90%D7%9E%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9F+%D7%9B%D7%94%D7%9F+%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%A1%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%98%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=1dI-TYzTEIyuuQOj5YGKAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%D7%99%D7%94%D7%95%D7%93%D7%99%D7%9D%20%D7%90%D7%9E%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9F%20%D7%9B%D7%94%D7%9F%20%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%A9%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%9D%20%D7%94%D7%A1%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%98%D7%9F&f=false
page 219


1558-1564:The leader of the Jews in Jerusalem is rabbi David ben zimra,Though the actually authority Israel is in Safed,Where the majority of the Jewish population is.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA142&dq=ibn+zimra&hl=ja&ei=EVwnTOfbJ8uHkQWrr_WUAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ibn%20zimra&f=false



1564:Don Yosef nasi and Dona Gratsia nasi,Recived the Ottomans permission to rebuild the city of Tiberia in north Israel,Which laid in its ruins after the Mamluk occupation.They settle Jews in it and planned to establish a Jewish autonomy in Tiberia.
The Jewish community of Cori,Italy for example,Sold all its belonging and marched to Tiberia,Thinking that the days of Jewish self governing in Israel had returned.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA108&dq=sheikh+ul+islam+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=7feETIfDBI6EvAPkhbHBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tiberias&f=false

The command of Tiberia is handled by Yosef ben aderet that also build walls to city,And the Ottoman sultan payed him to build the city every day 6o Akce every day.

Though Jews do settle in the city,The political situation change after Don yosefs death,And the Ottomans attitude become less encourage.

The city would later be destroyed by Arab tribes wars in 1670.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qy7cOTx6XwoC&pg=PA236&dq=don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=T4AlTMy_Noi-cfL6tb0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false


http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA108&dq=sheikh+ul+islam+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=7feETIfDBI6EvAPkhbHBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=don%20josef&f=false


1566:Rabbi Vidas teach Kabala in Hevron.

1566:Don Yosef is in charge of 12 islands near Greece.

1570:Don Yosef sign the trade contract between France to the Ottomans,The contract was in Hebrew.
1570:The Jewish population Safed grow and become as big as the Muslim community,Around 5000 Jews.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=POPPULATION&f=false
(PAGE 98)

1570:Rabbi Itshak loria ,Move to Safed from Egypt.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=vidas&f=false


Born to Ashkenazi father and Sapharadi mother in from Jerusalem.In Egypt was involved in maintaining the trade and tax.He studied from the famous Jerusalem rabbi,Rabbi Besalel ashkenazi, And rabbi Coriel of Safed and developed a new technique in the Kabala,That would soon replaced the Kabala of rabbi Kordovo.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=luria&f=false
His dougther meried rabbi Yosef Caro's son
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 26)



1570: A war between the Ottomans and the Venetians(the Lepanto war) put Don yosef position null,And his plans to establish a Jewish autonomy in Tiberia are dropped.

1570:The Arabs,led by a bu sipin, forbid Jews from entering the grave of the prophet Samuel(that ordains the first king of Israel,Saul).
The Jews use to celebrate the Shavuot festival every year there since the Crusaders time.
How ever it seem that Jews contiune to pilgrim to the grave a few years later after paying a *tribute* to the governor
http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA404&dq=whee+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=xOulTJ6zJoGivQOUrsH2DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=samuel&f=false
(page 80)
1572:Rabbi Loria dies,But his major student,Rabbi Haim Vital publish and teach his Kabala teachings all over Israel and Egypt and Syria up until his death in 1620.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA234&dq=Israel+ben+Moses+Najara&hl=ja&ei=6H8lTI2LNpG9cZuv9MAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=vital&f=false
.
1575:After rabbi Caro died,The great rabbi of Safed is rabbi of Trani.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=APSOv3uEu3UC&pg=PA184&dq=moses+di+trani&hl=ja&ei=LJwlTP-VHM7XccPDke4C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=moses%20di%20trani&f=false


1576:The first print house in the Ottoman empier is establishe by Jews in Safed.The fisrt book that was printed was in Hebrew rabbi Yom Tov tsahalons book.

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/chronology/seventeenth.html


1576:A 1000 Jews from Safed are expelled to Cyprus.Later the Sultan himself canceled the order.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA293&dq=tiberias+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=24ElTKTwD8urcdXv5MEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false

1577:The Jews of Safed,The city the biggest Jewish population in Israel at that time,Are terrorised by the Ottoman govenor,Together with the local Arabs.He forced them to work on Shabat.They attack Jews and kill some of them,And then arrest many of them and flogged each one of them many times and demdend huge amounts of money from them.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA200&dq=al+qazzaz+jew&hl=ja&ei=U4CoTJWIKI2gvgOGiK3pDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 298)
1579:The Ottoman sultan,Murad III,Order the excution of all the Jews in the empier.Only after the importent minister Solomon ashkenazi convice him to cancel the order the Jews are saved.
Murad III's mother was originaly a Jewish women that was forced to accept Islam,And he had many Jewish advisers like Solomon ben yahish that helped the Ott tooman to form an alinace with Engalnd,So maybe only his addiction to Opium could explain his infantil actions.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(page 338)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zMYoX859nV0C&pg=PA97&dq=MURAD+III+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=gQ-eTKTADIOYvAP6qbyqDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MURAD%20III%20JEWS%20DECREE&f=false
(page 104)


1580:After rabbi Moses of Trani dies,Rabbi Gelanti become the great rabbi of Safed,until 1612.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&pg=PA58&dq=moshe+gelante&hl=ja&ei=faIlTPSGOYedcdCEoNQC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

1585:The leasold of Tiberia is given the Solomon ben yahish,Also a Jew that returned to Judesam after being baptised by force in Europe.His son Jacob administrait it for him with great sucess.
http://www.publishersrow.com/The_Sephardi_Legacy_II/eBookshukBooks/shid1_bid3188_fid31_pid1_clpg1_pg110


1585:Rabbi Haim vital escape from the harasments of the Ottoman governor Abu sipin and leave Jerusalem
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 45)


1586:The Ottomans close down the Jewish synagogue in Jerusalem.It is the same synagogue that rabbi Nachman builded in 1267,And was destroyed by the Muslims in 1474,And a year later rebuild with autorozation of the Mamluk Sultan.
The Ottomans saw the rebuilding of a synagoug as a breach of the Omar laws.,From 715.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA293&dq=tiberias+don+yosef+nasi&hl=ja&ei=24ElTKTwD8urcdXv5MEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20don%20yosef%20nasi&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=FsDKlrLai3IC&pg=PA278&dq=NACHMANIDES+SYNAGOGUE+1586&hl=ja&ei=BwqnTI3KN42MvQOhpYXPDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NACHMANIDES%20SYNAGOGUE%201586&f=false
(page 278)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=gJsxXIZvjcsC&pg=PA25&dq=NACHMANIDES+SYNAGOGUE+1586&hl=ja&ei=0AqnTI_uJ4LuvQONotG9DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=NACHMANIDES%20SYNAGOGUE%201586&f=false
(page 25)
It seem that the confiscation of the Jewish syangogue  was very violent and many Jews fled the city,abu sipin ordered the confiscation,just like he did in the 1570S in the grave of samuel.
http://books.google.co.il/books?id=jwBXAAAAMAAJ&q=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&dq=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=yjinTKK2KYeEvAPVpKW6DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ
http://books.google.co.il/books?id=YqILAAAAIAAJ&q=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&dq=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=oTqnTKb2J4O8vgOEgrHADA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA

http://books.google.co.il/books?id=a6ttAAAAMAAJ&q=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&dq=%D7%90%D7%91%D7%95%C2%A0%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9F&hl=ja&ei=RjunTLryMousvgPb7rX_DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwATgK
(page 505)
1588:Rabbi Besalel ashkenazi return to live in Jerusalem from Egypt and lived there until 1596.He was a student of rabbi Ben Zimra and a techer for rabbi Loria.He his famouse for his methos of studying the Talmud,As it caled the Mishbazot.He was addored by both the Ashkenazim and the Sepharadim,And even the Ottomans rercognize him as the sole spokeman for the Jewish community.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(page 33)


1589:Rabbi Shlomo Adani finish his full comentery of the Mishna,After 30 years of work.He retrun to Israel from Yemen in 1571 with his family,Which was famous in its wisdom in Hevron.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA33&dq=shlomo+adani&hl=ja&ei=96MlTPKyJI3JcZXNtc0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=shlomo%20adani&f=false

1593:Rabbi Moshe Alshich died.he was a student of rabbi Yosef karo,and the teacher of rabbi Haim vital. came back to Israel in 1535 and was a very skilled preacher in Safed.he is the one that established the Meir baal hannes donation fund,to promot donation from Jews all over the world to the Jews in Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=SAFED&hl=ja&ei=R7G9TLiRLomKvgO6181E&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ALSHICH&f=false
(page 56)
1599:The situation of the Jews in Jerusalem is bad.Many died out of hunger.600 of 700 Jewish widowers in Jerusalem died.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(PAGE 338)

1599:The old Jewish towns near Safed,Like Ein zitim,Biria and Meiron are abandoned by their Jewish inhabitants because of the Arab violence.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&pg=PA95&dq=safed+JEWISH+POPPULATION&hl=ja&ei=Dl6OTK2BPI-GvAP79NznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=halhul&f=false
(PAGE 28)
THE 17 CENTURY
1600
:From letters between rabbi Gedaliah cordevero(son of moshe cordevero) and Itshak de trani(son of moshe de trani) we can learn that a Jewish community still exist in Eglon,In trans jordan
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=true
(PAGE 36)
And also in Jenin,In the north Samaria
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qqy4wqVbSUkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=COMING+TO+THE+LAND+16CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=BtGtTPzhKoe4vQPgqsHzBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 33)

 1600:Rabbi Avraham Azulai return from Morocco to Hevron.He will also live in Gaza and Jerusalem and teach the Lorian Kabala until 1634.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA33&dq=shlomo+adani&hl=ja&ei=96MlTPKyJI3JcZXNtc0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=avraham%20azulai&f=false


1603:The Ottomans appointed an Arab-Ciracai family to govern Jerusalem,The Fruk.They oppress the Jews very harshly.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=FAROUK&f=false



1610:The country is being under the control of the governor of Lebanon,Fachar a din until 1633.though the area is still as part of the Ottoman empire.This unsatable sitiation in which its not clear who is the actual ruller of the land coused great suffering to the population,and espeiclay the Jews,as non-Muslims that their rights are dependent on the rullers.


1621:The ruler of Jerusalem is Muhamad iben faruk.He increas his oppression of the Jews.

1622:The famous rabbi of Poland,Rabbi Yeshayau Halevi Horovits,Return to Jerusalem and his welcomed by the Jews with great celebration.
Horovits served and judge in many Jewish communities in Eeast Europe,Like Pragua and Lublin.His famous book,The two tables of the covenanat,Is a very important book in the Israeli fate,And it also preised and encourage Jews to return from the exile to their fatherland
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 52)

1623:The ruler of Lebanon,Is attacked by an Arab coalition of the Gaza governer,The Raduan clan,The Jerusalem governer,The faruk clan,And the Lajun governor,The Tarabay clan,And is defeated in the battle of Yazur near Yaffo.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA5&dq=fakhar+a+din+lebanon&hl=ja&ei=l6olTKn_IZSjca_IwKoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false




1625:The oppression of the Jews in Jerusalem reach to a peak when the hedonist governer of Jerusalem,Muhamad ben faruk,Arrest the main rabbis of Jerusalem,Including rabbi Horovis,For ransom and tourcher them.

The Jews find them self helpless and the governer of Damascus,That suppopse to be incharge over Jerusalem as well dont help them.They are forced to borrow a lot of money from the Arabs and Christians with big interest in order to free the rabbis from prison.The governor rule until 1638,But the news on the injustice dosent left unknown to the Ottomans,And in 1657,They replace all the local Arab governors with Syrian families that will rule from Gaza.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=yeshaya%20halevi%20horowitz%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 88)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(PAGE 342)
1:Fisrt,faruk overthrown the mayor of Jerusalem in 1625,With 300 merceneris.He oppressed and arreseted every one he wished to just in order to have their money and property.The kadi fled from the city,And the new kadi was delied.In one month he extort 3000 grush from the Jews.

2:Later,Faruks brother in law,Aga,Demanded imidiatly 5000 grush from the Jews,After many begging he *agrreed* to give them one night.But the Jews simply couldnt get that kind of money,He agrred to get half of it imidiatly,And pressur them harshly to pay the rest.

3:A month later,The new kadi came to Jerusalem,And Faruk bribed him and show him a fake order from the sultan that order the expel of most of the Jews from the city,The Jews panickly payed huge sums of money to Faruk and ot The kadi and other officials to overlook that order.

4:A month later Aga called for one of the rabbis to come to him.The rabbi's son came instead of him together with another elder rabbi.Both of them were publicly flogged almsot to death,And only after 2000 grush were promised to Aga he stopped.

5:On the summer of 1625,The governor of the province from Damascus called Faruk to come with Aga to see him,And Faruk lelt another brother in law of him, Called Ottoaman to be in charge.He also demanded a 1000 grush from the Jewish leader rabbi Shimon cohen,Later agreed to only 500 .

6:In the end of the summer,The Jews felt safe enough to go out and pray in the synagogue in shabat,But they were soon attacked by Ottoman's soldiers and 15 of their main rabbis were arrested.The Jews had to find a way to ransom their precies rabbis,And they  had to borow money from their Arab nighbors,Who only agrred to lend them moey,If the Jews would agreed to pay 50 % intrest rate.
In two weeks 9 were relises,And until september all were relised.In sum,20,000g rush were payed to Ottoman,
The governor of Damascus send a captain to see what Ottoman his doing, That captain demand that the Jews would be relised and their money to be returned,But Ottoman scared the captain away and later bribed him not to tell anything bad about him to the governor,The Jews had to sell their sphare close in order to pay the money need to relise the last 6 rabbis.

7:The compliants about Farouk become aware to the Ottoman authoroties and he was arrested,But when escaped from jail,He returned to Jerusalem,Got rid of his brothers in law,And start again to arrestes and flogged Jews.He arrest the two of the high rabbis,Rabbi Yaakob ben avraham and rabbi Itshak gaon and flogged them in public.How ever the Jews simply didnt have anything to give Farouk for ransom,Beside kitchen pots.

8:After that,the governor of Damascus treattend to attack Farouk if he wont leave the city,And he fled the city in december.The Jews in the city remain in a debt of 50,000 grush to the Arabs,paying an extra 10,000 every year on intrest.

1630:The Jews is Jerusalem are faced with an almost massacre by the Arabs.A rumor that Jews killed a Muslim boy in Egypt angried the Arabs and they start beating every Jew they come across with,But the kadi convice them to wait until the issue is investigated and then they could *legaly* massacre the Jews.The kadi of course extort 5000 grush rom the Jews for his *mercy* and in the investigation it turns out that not only that the boy is alive and not dead,But he is a Jewish boy that was kidnaped by the Muslims and was forced to accept Islam.He ran away from his adopting Muslim family to Egypt,And from there the evil rumor started.Once this is cleared and the boy come to Jerusalem,the kadi anult the decree to kill all the Jews,And the Jews celebrat a very happy Passover
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PR1&dq=ehere+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=8eKpTLq6CIOmvgPjtsjdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=masscre&f=false
(PAGE 94)

1640:The city of Tiberia is destroyed and its Jews are scatetred.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA15&dq=rebuilding+of+tiberias+1742&hl=ja&ei=1GqOTIvRMY3cvQOJzoToBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=rebuilding%20of%20tiberias%201742&f=false
(page 14)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA15&dq=rebuilding+of+tiberias+1742&hl=ja&ei=1GqOTIvRMY3cvQOJzoToBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=tiberias%20destroyed&f=false
(page 148)

1642:Rabbi Yaakov tsemach come from Damascus to live in Jerusalem.In Damascus he was on the few scholars that were chosen by rabbi Haim vitals's son to study the teaching of the Kabala,As vital accepted it from rabbi Loria.How ever,In Jerusalem,He discover a hidden treasure,Thousend of paper wok writen  by rabbi Vital,That were unknown to Vitals son.By arrenging the pages that were in disaray,He promised that the secret and valuabale knowledg could be brought to future generations
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 66)

1643: Rabbi Avraham Azulai died.he moved back to Israel in 1600 from Moroco,And lived in Hevron,untlil a plague in 1619 forced him to move to Jerusalem,another plague there forced him to move to Gaza,where he wrote his book chesed lehavraham.he was a famose kabalist that studied from rabbi Haim vital and his son and also with rabbi Yaakov tsemach.he lived a long time in Hebron until his death.
He was the grandfather of rabbi Haim yosef azulai,the famos kabalist and messenger that colected donations in Europe for the poor Jews of Jerusalem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA73&dq=avraham+azulai+hebron&hl=ja&ei=Rqa9TODxGIe4vgOdgpFP&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=avraham%20azulai%20hebron&f=false
(page 73)

1658:Rabbi Israel Yaakov hagiz, Return from Moroco to Jerusalem,And together with rabbi Gelanti II they establish the big Beit Yaakov Yeshiva . They will later would object and fight against the Shabtai movemnet.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 75)
Hagiz arange the establishment of the Beit yaakov yeshiva,In which many important sholars would learn.He arranged that a generous family from Livorno ,the vega family would support the yeshiva
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA5&dq=fakhar+a+din+lebanon&hl=ja&ei=l6olTKn_IZSjca_IwKoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(PAGE 25)



1660:The rulers of Gaza fight against the rulers of lebanon,And destroy Tiberia.the Jews of Tiberia move to Safed and other places,Though Safed itself was destroyed  too by the Arabs on the same time, And its Jews were massacred.
It seem that right after that many Jews returned to Safed,Including many polish Jews that fled the Hemlinistki grand massacre.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA149&dq=tiberias+in+the+17+century&hl=ja&ei=tbIlTOe7CNSOcZKntK0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20in%20the%2017%20century&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1695&f=false
(page 345)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=iKBwZ9Y8j8QC&pg=PA49&dq=safed+1660&hl=ja&ei=eR-eTMy7GoOgvgPFibGMDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFEQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=safed%201660&f=false
(page 49)

1660:Its seem that during that time ,Gaza was the biggest Jewish city in the land,Just lIke it was in most of the Mamluk period
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 73)

1665:The Shabtai movement case.A Jew name Shabtai tsvi(1626-1674)proclaim himself as the Meshiac(the deliverer of Jews,A descedent of king David)for that reason is being excommunicate by the Jews of Greece and Turkey,Though he is being very appreciate by the Egyptian Jews, And send to deliver donations to the Jews of Israel.He is met a famous Kabala master in Gaza,Rabbi Natan of Gaza,That acknowlegd him as the Meshiach.

Though the Jews and the rabbis of Jerusalem object him and deny his claims,The Jews of Safed and Syria accept him with great excitement. The entier Jewish world,Red the letter sent to them by rabbi Natan,And they belive that the Meshiach has come.Zvi was so charizmatic that he even charmed the kadi of jerusalem (the kadis in Jerusalem allways looked for away to hummiliat the Jsews)

After his supporters and opossesr wrestle in Turkey,He is was arrested by the Sultan.In his jail,He was visited by a rabbi from Poland,Rabbi Nechamia kohen,A Kabala specialist,That argued with him 3 days,And expose him to be a liar.

Fearing to be assasinat by Shabtais supporters,Kohen convert to Islam,And then blaim Shabtai for planing a rebellion against the Sultan .The Sultan in his anger,Gives Shabati two options,To be executed or to convert to Islam.Shabtai convert to Islam,And most of his followres soon abondoned him,And return to seek forgivnes for thier sins.

Only a few of his many many followers remain loyal to him after his death in 1676,And most of them converted to Islam or Christianity.While the majority of Jews start to look at the Kabala with a more caution ,And limited the study of the Kabala to only over 40 years old people,One of the ideas from the Shabtai movement,Did become accepted and would be put into practice in later years,The idea that the return of the Jews to live independently in their homeland Israel,Will make the Geula(the apocalyptic fight and final victory of good over evil)closer.This will be continue in the Hasidut and Zionist movement.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=ZEBI&f=false
(PAGE 345)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=7lsVajEtaQ0C&pg=PA216&dq=DAVID+HAREUVENI&hl=ja&ei=6UCaTM7FFo3SuwOqnYSbDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=GAZA&f=false
(PAGE 234)

1674:Rabbi Gelante II, Lead the Jews of Jerusalem until 1689.After him,Hizkiya de silva will succed him
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 79)
He replaced rabbi Chagis after his death,And he took care if his son,Moshe Chagiz.
Gelantei was famouse for his leading of the memorial for the prophet Samuel every summer in the grave of samule north to Jerusalem.This annual event was one of the most important Jewish event in Israel,Egypt and Syria
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=WHEN+HEAVEN+TOUCHES+EARH&hl=ja&ei=eyqeTKmkH4GavgPstcC5DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(PAGE 80)
1689:Rabbi Moshe haviv succeed rabbi Gelanti in leading the Jews of Jerusalem,Since Hizkiya de silva,Gelanti's main scholar was sent to a long mission in Europe to raise donation to the Jewish communities in Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=WHEN+HEAVEN+TOUCHES+EARH&hl=ja&ei=eyqeTKmkH4GavgPstcC5DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(page 85)

1698: An epidemic kill many of inhabitants in the land,In Jerusalem,36 rabbis died
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=mRCnTKfMMYewvgOl0LTMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=farouk&f=false
(PAGE 87)
THE 18 CENTURY

1700
:More then 1000 Jews from Poland return to live in Jerusalem,Led by their rabbi,Rabbi Yehuda,Beliving that the Jews return to dwell freely in the land of Israel will bring the Geula faster.Their messenger buy land for them in Jerusalem to house them,With money that the Jewish communities in Poland donated,But since building new houses was forbidden to Jews,A lot of money was loaned to the Jews from the Arab in order to get the approval of the authorities.

But a few days after the arrival to Jerusalem,The old rabbi dies from the hard and long travel.The grope that was left leaderless,And being suspected as followers of the Shabatai movement,Recive almost no help from the Jews in jerusalem,Spread around some mix with the Jews in Jerusalem,Hevrom,Gaza and Safed,And left the debt matter undone,The Arabs of Jerusalem in their anger,Decreated that no Ashkernazi Jew would be allowed to dwell in Jerusalem ever since.The band would only be lifted in 1816,After the Tsoref family payed the debt.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=7lsVajEtaQ0C&pg=PA238&dq=yehuda+hachasid&hl=ja&ei=2LMlTNSuCJDRcYik6NEC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=yehuda%20hachasid&f=false




1703:Arab rebellion in jerusalem,Led by El ashraf, Jerusalem was 2 years under the local Arabs control.

1708:The Muslim kadi uses his power to humiliate the Jews in Jerusalem.He forced Jews to were a very tal turban,And forbid them from crossing an Arab from his right side..(this one would be obseredved by the arabs up until the end of the ottoman period,if a jew sowuld pass near them they will yell:pass me on my left you dog!)
This situation reach a peak when he forced the Jews to burry all the dogs that the Arab killed after a dog was rumored to enter the El aqsa mosque in the temple Mount.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=false
(PAGE 148)

The kadi also arrested the  head of the Jews,The Rishon lezion,But luckily,During an Arab riot in the city the leader was realised by force and the kadi escaped the city.
All the cheif rabbis Sepharadi rabbis of Jerusalem since the time of Moshe gelantei II(1665) were called Rishon lezion,Which mean the head of the holly land(Zion).
1713:Rabbi Moshe Hagiz,Continue his fight against the Shabtai movement.He travel to Amsterdam to collect donations to Israel,And join the Ashkenazi rabbi Tsvi hirsh,In order to convince the Sapharadi community in Amsterdam to excommunicate the Shabtai scholar,Rabi Nechamiya chayun(also from Jerusalem).

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=QSZkPkft18oC&pg=PA77&dq=moshe+hagiz&hl=ja&ei=29UlTOf-CImycb-fpbsC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=moshe%20hagiz&f=false

However Hagis fight against the Shabatout movement,Especilay in Amsterdam,That its Jewish community becom the main supporter of the Jews in Jerusalem with the help of rabbi Hizqiya de silva,In 1690,Instead of the Vega family from livorno,That stopped its support in 1685,Couse great finanicial problmes to Jerusalem
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=Pt50fMlgKuMC&pg=PA5&dq=fakhar+a+din+lebanon&hl=ja&ei=l6olTKn_IZSjca_IwKoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=MALKI&f=false
(page 36)

1720:The Arabs burned down the synagogue builded by rabbi Yehuda They make it garbage dump and the houses near become Arab shops.They arrested many of the Ashkenazim and eventually decided that all of the Ashkenazim are baned from the city.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA595&dq=jerusalem+18+century&hl=ja&ei=t-o1TIaBB4OycZDcvOAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=snippet&q=1722&f=false
(PAGE 119)

1722:The pasha of Jerusalem,Yusuf, Oppress the Jews and arrest their important rabbis for ransom.The Jews are demanded to pay a huge amount of money for the ransom in 3 months.The young rabbi Meyuchas,Grandson of rabbi Meyuchas ,The great rabbi of Jerusalem that was arrested as well, Was sent to collect the donations from Jews in Turkey,Suuceed in convincing the Jews to help their brothers,In on his way back he is myracusly saved from Arab bandits that tried to mug him from his huge treasure.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=MEYUCHAS%20MURDER&f=false
(PAGE 123)

1730:All the Jewish women in Jerusalem which are involved with selling wine were arrested after two Arab women get drunk and one stab the other to death.After paying a very expensive ransom the women are freed.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touvhes+earth&hl=ja&ei=sjqOTPGWDoXOvQOf8ZzoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=damascus%20%20women&f=false
(page 124)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA43&dq=1695+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=EQWeTPGqEob0vQOPkfj7DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=arabs&f=false
(PAGE 141)

1733:The pasha of Damascus visit Jerusalem and expel all the Jews living near the western wall,After He spotted a few Jewish women looking at his direction.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=where+heaven+touvhes+earth&hl=ja&ei=sjqOTPGWDoXOvQOf8ZzoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=damascus%20%20women&f=false
(page 124)

1738:Rabbi Moshe haggis join rabbi Tsvi hirshs son,Rabbi Yaakobv Amdan,To battle the Shabai movement scholers,Rabbi Yonatan aivshits and rabbi Moshe lutasto.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=QSZkPkft18oC&pg=PA77&dq=moshe+hagiz&hl=ja&ei=29UlTOf-CImycb-fpbsC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=luzzatto&f=false
(PAGE 78)



1739:Rabbi Nachman of hordna,One of the leader of the Hasidut movement in east Europe, Move to live in Safed and later Tiberia with a big grope of followers..

Rabi Nachman was one of the followers of the Baal shenm tove,And the grandfather of the famous rabbi,Nachman of braslev.

1740:Rabbi Haim abulafiya rebuild the city of Tiberia.The Bedouin governor of the Galil and Lebanon,Dahar el omar,Is very kind to the Jews,And he invite rabbi Abulafia to rebuild the city,Since its rabbi abulafiyas grandfather that was the last rabbi of Tiberia.He build a big Yeshiva and settele many Jews there,A big market and public bath.

The city become very big until 1744,And rabbi Abulfiyas son succeed him after his death in leading the Jews in it.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA149&dq=tiberias+in+the+17+century&hl=ja&ei=tbIlTOe7CNSOcZKntK0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tiberias%20in%20the%2017%20century&f=false
Rabbi Yakov birab II,A descendet of the famose rabbi Birab of the 16 century,come from turkey with a big grope of Jews to settle in tiberia.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yqXXD_74yAEC&pg=PA64&dq=TIBERIAS+BIRAV&hl=ja&ei=hLa9TInCIYSevgOHuLgj&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=TIBERIAS%20BIRAV&f=false
(PAGE 65)

How ever.while the Jews Tiberia preised Omar,the Jews in Safed sufferd from him.just like every other Muslim ruler,he also wantd Jews under his control,simply becuase They were defencless(they werent allowed to carry any weapon)and could easyly be extorted by simply arresting one one of them,and they would panickly send messengers to europe to collect funds for ransom from europian generous jews,and it was a very easy income for Arab rulers.
High taxes were imposed in them for the army of Omar,and Omar also demendad a very expensive present from all the non-Mulsims every time he merried,and he meried every year.
Many Jews had to flee and hide on the hills.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=SAFED&f=false
(page 17)
1741:The local Arabs in Jerusalem try to expel the Jews from Jerusalem because of The increase of Jews returning from exile,And they even refused to sell food to the Jews.
Only after paying a huge bribe the Jews were saved for now.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA43&dq=1695+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=EQWeTPGqEob0vQOPkfj7DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=arabs&f=false
(page 21)



1742:The governor of Damascus battle with Dahar el omar,And seige Tiberia for 83 days.

After tha, the Damascus ruler,That is officaly in charge over all over Israel,Died,And the actual ruler of the Galil and Lebanon was Omar.Omar start to rebuild the port cities of Haifa and Acre,And setteled many Jews there.for the Ottomans he was stile consider the governor or Sidon area.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA260&dq=hayim+abulafia&hl=ja&ei=h9wlTP2RJ4-lcfmYzMcC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tiberias&f=false
(PAGE 16)



1743:Rabbi Mosh luzato move to Acre,Where he also builded a synagogue under the approval of Dahar el omar. though being a scholar of the Shabtai movement,And die  3 years later, he influented the Hasidut and later Zionist movement deeply,Because he wrote both on religous subjects,Like a variety of subjects in the Kabala , And both on seculer subjects,Like Love and Nature.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA260&dq=hayim+abulafia&hl=ja&ei=h9wlTP2RJ4-lcfmYzMcC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=luzzatto%20acre&f=false


(PAGE 36)

1743;Rabi Haim ben atar return from Morocco to Acre.He will later dwell in Pekiin and Tiberia.His main student was Rabi Yosef azulai.

Ben Atar was a very adored Kabala master,And even the Baal shem tov in far away east europe admired him.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA260&dq=hayim+abulafia&hl=ja&ei=h9wlTP2RJ4-lcfmYzMcC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%20attar&f=false
(page 157)

In his time ,A meting between the Jews and the Kariats about the high taxes imposed on the Jews,Is used by the Kariats to humiliate the Jews and to couse rabbi Atar to fall and to faint.When he wakes up he curse the Kariats,A curse that belived to be effect at list until 1853.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA595&dq=jerusalem+18+century&hl=ja&ei=t-o1TIaBB4OycZDcvOAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=1722&f=false
(page 130)


Atar was a very famose rabbi in Jerusalem,And his Yeshiva was so prestiged that it attract scholars from all over the world.He also had a second Yeshiva,In which he and his best students would study Kabala,

1744:the Jewish synagogue in Yafo is being confiscated by the Arabs.

http://geoimages.berkeley.edu/libyajew/LibyanJews/thejews.html

1744:The Jews of Hebron are persucuted by the Arab rulers and the local Christians,The community face explusion from the city for its debts,Since it cant pay the many taxes and tributs that the local governors and the local bandits impossed on them.
The communty look for help from overseas Jews after the community is being beaten and flogged.
http://books.google.com/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA23&dq=1765+hebron+jews&hl=ja&ei=iW-sTIH8K9CXcYvJ-MYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1765%20hebron%20jews&f=false
(page 23)

1745-1748:The Jewish community of Jerusalem is extorted by the Ottomans.The cheif rabbi ,Nissin mizrahi and other prominent members are often arrested and tortured for expensive ransom,That the Jews had to beg from  Jewish coomunities in Europe while their rabbis are being tortured until the full ransom come to the hands of their Muslims oppressors

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PR1&dq=ehere+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=8eKpTLq6CIOmvgPjtsjdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=women&f=false
(page 123)

1747:Rabbi Abraham geroshon of kitov,The brother in law of he Baal shem tov(the founder of the Hasidut movement)return to live in Israel.
He came with his family,And setteled in Hebron,Where he was well accepted and loved by the small comunity of the Sepharadim Jews.
In 1753 he moved to live in Jerusalem,and joined the small Ashkenazi community there that lived together with the Sepharadim without the Muslims even notitcing it,Since the Muslim bands the Ashkenazim from living in Jeruslaem ever since the days of rabbi Yehuda hachasid in 1720.
He would live until 1761 and would be one of the sages of the Beit el yeshiva,Which was famouse for its kabala rabbis like rabbi Sharabi.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=khcJwdVE4EUC&pg=PA64&dq=abraham+gershon+of+kitov+hebron&hl=ja&ei=5hWvTPjeJIOcvgOal-WtBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=abraham%20gershon%20of%20kitov%20hebron&f=false
(page 64)

1755:Rabbi Yosef azulai from Jerusalm travel in Europe to collect money to the Jews of Israel.He was a mix between Moroco Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.

After his death his main student ,Rabbi Shalom sharavi of Yemen would succeed him in the great Yeshiva of Jerusalem,The Beit el Kabala Yeshiba.

http://books.google.com/books?id=3VG7vNi6dGQC&pg=PA119&dq=yosef+azulai&hl=ja&ei=5PIlTMDJEs-IkAXpkYBx&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=yosef%20azulai&f=false

Sharhabi was involved in a mysterious incident with the Arabs that always harassed Jews that were praying in the western wall,In which afterward the Arabs promised to stop their harassment of the Jews.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=false
(page 157)

1758:The Arabs confiscate the Jewish synagogue that Rabbi Luzato had builded in acre.
http://www.akko.org.il/English/Sites/PrayerSites.asp

1759:A big earth quake destory the north of Israel
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20synagogue&f=false
(page 353)
Many Jews died in that earthquake
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=SAFED&f=false
(page 17)
1763:The Jews of Safed are forced to pay for the battle expence of the wars between Omar and his son
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=SAFED&f=false
(page 17)
1764:The first groups of Hasidim,Led by rabbi Nachman of hordna,
Come to Israel,And settle in Tiberia.
that was the second time that the rabbi lead a big gruppe of Hasisdim to return to Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=aWmoHFPZa_UC&pg=PA38&dq=nachman+of+horodenka+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=JtwlTOM50IZxiNfMpgI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=nachman%20of%20horodenka%20in%20israel&f=false

1765:The Jews of Hebron face again explusion by the Arab governores and local christians.The Muslim rullers want to expel the Jews and bring Christians insetad of them
http://books.google.com/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA23&dq=1765+hebron+jews&hl=ja&ei=iW-sTIH8K9CXcYvJ-MYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1765%20hebron%20jews&f=false
(page 23)

1769:Dahar el omar support Egypt that declared its Independence from Ottoman control.

1770:Rabi Yom tov elgazi travel in Europe to collect donation to Israel.He will become the great rabbi of Jerusalem in 1782.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA141&dq=yom+tov+elgazi&hl=ja&ei=DPclTO-oIs6HkAWN87B8&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=yom%20tov%20elgazi&f=false




1771-1775:The Egyptian rebellion.The Egyptian ruler Ali bay fight against the Ottomans together with Omar,Using the Russian empire as their allay.But in 1774,After the war of Russia and Turkey is over and with death of Ali bay,Omar is left alone,And in 1775 he was murdered,And the Ottoman offical control was restored.The new governes would be Albanian families,Led by Achmad el Jazar,That his grand adviser and minister would be Haim prchi,A Jew from Damascus.

http://books.google.com/books?id=PszeSJ-cgCsC&pg=PA178&dq=daher+el+omar&hl=ja&ei=cvclTPnkKJaekQXjyL2EAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=daher%20el%20omar&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&pg=PA145&dq=chaim+parchi&hl=ja&ei=YyaMTPSiCI3Bcf7U9JwE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=chaim%20parchi&f=false
(page 130)
During that time in 1771,Ali bey besiege Jerusalem and the Jews were blamed for that and were forced to pay a expensive bribe.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA43&dq=1695+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=EQWeTPGqEob0vQOPkfj7DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=arabs&f=false
(page 21)

1775:A blood libel in Hebron.Blood libel is called  in Hebrew Alilat dam,Which mean blood conspiracy.During the 12-16 century in West Europe, Jews were blamed in the ritual murder of Christians boys.The false accusation was that they used the boy blood in order to make the Passover bread,The Matza.
This was out of total ignorance by the Christians to the Jews strict diet and extra carefulness to get rid of the blood of an animal before consumption,And in all cases theconfession were extracted by tourters,And without actual evidence.In some cases,Like in England,There wasn't even a body.
Many Jews were either expelled,Forced to convert to Christianity,Or executed because of such accusation.entier jews communities in France and Fermany for example,had to run away and settel in east europe during  the 12 to 16 century because of such folse claims.
In the 19 century,Blood libels occurred again in East Europe,But with the conduction of proper and fair trail where the defenders can be heared,And convicting  with actual evidence is required,All accusation lost in court.
During that time the knowledge's about blood libels came to the middle east and up until today many Arabs in the middle east are convinced that it is true.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/hebron.html

On the same year it seem that the Ottomans,That renew their control over Israel,Encourage Jews to re-settele in  Israel,And even orginised it,Simply because they refered to it as a source of income.They would rent a few ships eevry year and charge the passengers for the travel.it seem that hundreds of Jews returned to Israel every year.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=JEWS+IN+THE+18+CENTURY&hl=ja&ei=oZ2oTKqZHZGevgPr6tHGDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=DESERT&f=false
(page 30)

1776:The new goverenor of Sidon is in charge over north Israel.Inorder to keep the security in the area from the Bedouim that moved to north Israel from north Syria in the 1740s,He gatther a big army of merceneries from Bosnia,Albania,North africa,And even Afganistan and pay them by hevey taxation and extortion of the population,Though,On the same time encouraging Jews to love in Acre and Haia for example,So he could over taxed them and extort them.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bWjwcoSdoiAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=histoey+of+palestine&hl=ja&ei=3G56TNSxJIjJcenppfsF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=extortion&f=false
(page 62)
1776:Ali bay's son,Muhamad ,Conquer Jaffa and massacre all of its Inhabitants,And build a big pyramid from their skulls.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1757&f=false

(PAGE 356)



1777:The followers of the Hasidut movement return to live in Israel.

The founder of the movemet was rabbi Baal shem tov(1698-1760)in east Europe.

400 scholars came,And because in Jerusalem they were refused entry by the Arabs,And in safed they faced hostility from the Hasidut opposers,They settled in Tiberia.Their leader was rabbi Menachem mendel of vitsbek,Which was one of the founders of the movement in east Europe.from that point and on,Many more Hasidut followers,And many more Hasidut opposers would return to live in Israel.

http://books.google.com/books?id=yPvWopv2QzgC&pg=PR36&dq=Menachem+Mendel+of+Vitebsk&hl=ja&ei=oPglTKHJGc2TkAWClZyaAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Menachem%20Mendel%20of%20Vitebsk&f=false

1782:The Ottoman governors of Jerusalem decied to find an addition way to extort money from the Jews,Beside the already expensive taxes and tributs that many Jewish comunities all over the world would donate just to make sure that their brothers that guard jerusalem would be safe.The Ottomas tax the Jews heavely for the right to be buried in the mount of olives.Jews had been buried there for thousands of years,Since it was a great privilage,And many Jews from the diaspora came to Jerusalem in their late years just to be buried in the mount of olivs.
The mount of olives is right next to mount moria,Which is the temple mount,Of which upon him the first and second temple stood,And today there are Muslim mosque instead of it.The Jews belived that in the end of times,After the Meshiach would come and defeat evil forever,The dead would return to live.Since the Meshiach is suppost to come from the mount of Olives,Jews belived that by being burried there will assur that they would return to live first.
The Jews first payed a heavy *bribe* to annul that decree,But shortly after the Arabs demanded a direct order from the sultan.it took the Jews  a few years until they got that decree annuled by the sultan,By then,Heavey taxes were imposed on every Jew that wished to be burried there.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PR1&dq=ehere+heaven+touches+earth&hl=ja&ei=8eKpTLq6CIOmvgPjtsjdDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=women&f=false
(page 143)

1783:El jazar,the ruler of north Israel,Probably with the influence of his finacial adviser Haim parchi,Give some tax reduction to the Jews that come to re-build Safed after the 1759 earthquake and the 1771-1775 Dahar el omar rebelion,Though it seem that as soon as Napoelon invade Israel Jazar annuled that attitude and extorted large sums of funds from the Jews in the north.
http://books.google.com/books?id=GdEDefYc4u0C&pg=PA23&dq=1765+hebron+jews&hl=ja&ei=iW-sTIH8K9CXcYvJ-MYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=ACRE&f=false
(page 19)

1790:The son of the great rabbi of Jerusalem ,Rabi yom tov elgazi,Yaakov,Is murdered by Arabs,Because of the huge debt that the Jewish community have.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA595&dq=jerusalem+18+century&hl=ja&ei=t-o1TIaBB4OycZDcvOAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=PASHA%20OF%20DAMASCUS&f=false
(page 145)




1798:Rabbi nachman of braslev,The grandson the Baal shem tov and Nachman of horodonka,Visit In Israel.He claim that a Jew cant be a Jew without dweling in the land of Israel.Other famous word of him is the famous Jewish song:Very narrow bridge.

http://books.google.com/books?id=DlvXDMNboYwC&pg=PA339&dq=Nachman+of+Breslov&hl=ja&ei=tPolTLzxB8yIkAXlo5Vz&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Nachman%20of%20Breslov&f=false




1798:The French empire,Led by Napoleon Bonapart,Invaded Egypt and from there reached Israel,In a mission to cut the conection between Britan and India.

The French first conqured Gaza and Yaffo,And massacre many of the populats,Including Jews.that was the end of the jewish comunity in Gaza,that fled to jerusalem.Fearing the same massacre would occure in Jerusalem,The great rabbi of jerusalem,Rabbi Meyuchas,Allow the Jews to participate in the reinforcing the walls of Jerusalem even on Shabat.Napoleon doesn’t get to Jerusalem in the end.He go to attack Acre,Which is protected by Jazar and Parchi.The city walls are very strong,And the British navi help the city.Napoleon try to convice Haim prchi to shift to his side,Promising to reestablish the Jewish independent nation of Israel,But Parchi don’t belive him,Probably from fearing that if the word that a Jew helped Napoleon,The Arabs would massacre the Jews in Jerusalem.

http://books.google.com/books?id=WUEoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA297&dq=napoleon+in+the+holly+land&hl=ja&ei=Lf0lTLOhLM2HkAXo5PSLAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false


http://books.google.com/books?id=e-eku7pCCZYC&pg=PA33&dq=Haim+Farhi+acre&hl=ja&ei=3f8lTLPjI82TkAWzmMSaAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Haim%20Farhi%20acre&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n4kTdYgwQPkC&pg=PA72&dq=ransom+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=oEeZTMrjI4_yvQO_ydjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ransom%20jews%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 71,about the Turks plan to massacer the non-Muslims if napoleon would invade Jerusalem)

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA89&dq=yeshaya+halevi+horowitz+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=JqclTPSYFoikcdSk8LAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=DOGS&f=false
(page 164)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=wuNcEpfgxQYC&pg=PA118&dq=jews+1799+moniteur&hl=ja&ei=hXKdTIXiM5H-vQOVo6GcDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=jews%201799%20moniteur&f=false
(page 118)
After the French finally break through the walls,They find another wall,And that break their moral,And Napoleon desert his army and return alone to France.

Soon after,The Jews in Safed are being attacked by the Arabs.
This acts of violence show that Napoleons pledge's to the Jews to take his side for the benefits of their nation was well heared by every single one in the land and it fueled their already existing hate towards the Jews,And this is probably the reason why Parchi denied Napolion's offer.
http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=RA1-PA379&dq=safed+napoleon&hl=ja&ei=VwAmTI2aEZWekQWK7ZVq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=safed%20napoleon&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n4kTdYgwQPkC&pg=PA72&dq=ransom+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=oEeZTMrjI4_yvQO_ydjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ransom%20jews%20jerusalem&f=false
(PAGE 71)

Napoleon said;
Jews!the only nation in the world that over thousand of years the tyrany and the lust to conquer of the nations had succeded in taking only your homeland and your independent existence away from you.
Wake up!wake up joyfully,you ,the exiled ones!a war that has never happened before in history is hapening now for self defence by a nation that its enemies had conspired to rub and divid among them its lands by the twist of a pen of ministers,this nation is now avanging its shame and the shame that other occupaied nations forsaken from the heart under the burden of slavery,including your 2000 years of shame that was impose on you,we offer you on the same time to restore the land of israel to your hands.
this young army that the divine had send  me to guide:that justice rule it and victory its his companion,made its center in jerusalem and will reach damascus in a few days.

The legal owners of the land of Israel!the great nation that dosent trade with people and nations,France of course,unlike the once that sold your fathers fathers to the rest of the nations,is calling you now to accept to your hands what was already conqured for you to be governord.
Wake up!prove that the powers of your former oppresors didnt reduced the spirit of the descendets of those heros,that their band of brothers could be an honor even to Rome and Sparta,and that the 2000 years of your oppresion didnt made you into slaves.

Hury up!here comes the moment that might not return in another 1000 years,to demand to return your legal civil rights among the nations that were not given to you for thousands of years,and demand for yourself a national existance as a nation among nations and your natural and unlimited right to worship God according to your belife in public and for ever.

This was publish on 20 of februar 1799.
the rumor about Napolion and a posible Jewish revolt were extragereted in occupaied Israel and the Jews suffered alot from that,for example:
newspapers  in france publish that Napoleon recruted Jews in Asia and they are now advancing toward Allepo,a complite lie.
The Ottomans heard about that and opresed the Jews in Jerusalem:because they heard that 12,000 Jews joined the French army that besiege Acre.Treats of massacres and rape were made on the Jews and they were forced to pay a bribe to annul that massacre and rape.the rabbis of Jerusalem sended messengers to Europe bagging for help and donations to save their lifes.
all the Jews were foreced to work in the constraction of the cities fortifications and Jews that got tired from the hard work were brutaly beaten.

THE 19 CENTURY
1804
:After Jazars death,His son Suliman,Succeed him,With he guidance of Haim parchi,That use his high position to help the Jews that return to live in Israel.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=RA1-PA379&dq=safed+napoleon&hl=ja&ei=VwAmTI2aEZWekQWK7ZVq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=safed%20napoleon&f=false




1806:Suliman stretch his control over Acre,Yaffo and Gaza,And from 1809 all of Sirya.But find resistatnce 
 in Nablus.

1807:Mahmud abu nabut is appointed by Suliman to govern Yaffo,That ruled until 1818.He build walls from stones taken from the ruins of Ashkelon and Cesaria.

1808:Rabbi Bajaio buy land in Hevron to build a synagogue.

http://www.hebron.com/english/article.php?id=178




1809:The arrival of many of the followers of the Hasidut main opposer,The Gaoln of vilna,Up until 1840 more then 5000 came to Israel.They were called Prushim.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA177&dq=menachem+mendel+of+shklov&hl=ja&ei=nQgmTJTZGM-HkQX3nq2PAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=menachem%20mendel%20of%20shklov&f=false


The Prushim have a clear intention to restore the independent of the Israeli nation.They even train in weapons,And didnt’t let the Bedouin humiliate them,In one occasion,A Bedouin bandits kidnapped a grope of Jews near Yaffa and demand the Prushim to pay the ransom,The Proshim pretended to submite to them,And then attack the Bedouin and killed them,Realising the Jews.


http://books.google.com/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA595&dq=jerusalem+18+century&hl=ja&ei=t-o1TIaBB4OycZDcvOAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgK#v=snippet&q=two%20jewish%20&f=false
(page 119)



1811:Rabbi Bajaio buy 800 acres in old Hevron.

http://www.hebron.com/english/article.php?id=178

1815:The rabbis of the Jews in Hebron are arrested and torched until they are ransomed thanks to gemneous donations from Jews in Western Europe.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n4kTdYgwQPkC&pg=PA72&dq=ransom+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=oEeZTMrjI4_yvQO_ydjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ransom%20jews%20jerusalem&f=false
(PAGE 71)


1816:After rabbi Tsoref pay the Arabs their old debt from 1700,The band on Ashkenazi Jews from living in Jerusalem is lifted and many Jews ,Especialy Proshim,Use the opportunity and move to Jeruaslem,And its very soon the Jews in Jerusalem become the majority,And the Perushim appointed Jewish guard on the walls,Settle agriculture farms,And they actually builded the base for the establishment of the Jewish independent in Israel.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=242&letter=J&search=jerusalem#940




1818:Yosef metelon,A Jew from Yaffo,Buy land and build a small hotel to house the Jewish pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem.This will be the base to the revival of the Jewish community of Yaffo,And later.Tel aviv.Very soon,A small communti\y of Jews is established in Yaffo.

1819:Haim parchi is being assassinat by the next governor of Acre,Sulimans son ,Abudala.

Abudala also attack the Jews of Safed and Tiberia,Claimming that all he time Parchi was in charge,He gave the Jews a discount in the Dhimi Jaziya tax,That the Oamr laws demand he Jews pay to the Muslim for their *protection*.He demendad an imposible prise to pay,And the Jews had to pay him with their land,Houses and even the close they had on.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n4kTdYgwQPkC&pg=PA72&dq=ransom+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=oEeZTMrjI4_yvQO_ydjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ransom%20jews%20jerusalem&f=false
(page 71)
This was the time that many old Jewish towns in the Galil were abounded by the Jews fearing the Arabs attacks.Many of those would become Arab towns,Like En zeitin and Meiron.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&pg=PA145&dq=chaim+parchi&hl=ja&ei=mxEmTKWjKIK9cfSM0eUC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=chaim%20parchi&f=false
(page 146)

http://books.google.com/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&pg=PA76&dq=jews+under+the+abbas+dynasty+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9VgnTMWGKs-HkQXnoK2PAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=RAPE&f=false
(PAGE 86,ABOUT THE ERADICATION OF JEWISH VILIGES IN ISRAEL)

1820:Rabbi Yeshayau ajmon,Buy a hotel to house the Jews on their pilgrim to Jerusalem.Every month a rabbi from Jerusalem came to Yaffo to guide the Jews there,After 17 years,Yaffo appointed its own rabbi,The same rabbi that came to guide them for 17 years,Rabbi Yehuda margoza.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=ASvcvawKNCoC&pg=PA35&dq=jaffa+jews&hl=ja&ei=tg8mTNfZGcKwceLa3LUC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=jaffa%20jews&f=false
(page 36)



1821:The brothers of Haim parchi assembled a Turkish army and storm the Galil, Avenging their brother, Seiging Abudala in Acre,For 14 months they rule the Galil.After that their older brother was poisoned by a traitor,And the brothers return to Damascus.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=RjFoPWto6VYC&pg=PA145&dq=chaim+parchi&hl=ja&ei=mxEmTKWjKIK9cfSM0eUC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=chaim%20parchi&f=false
(page 146)



1825:The Arabs is Jerusalem rebelled against Abudala,And failed.

1831:Jews from Lebanon participate in siege on the Sanur castle,As a part of the Druze forces from Lebanon,Sent to help Abuddla to fight the Syrian families that control Nablus.

1832:The Egyptian occupation.Ibrahim pasha conqured Israel and Syria in his fight against the Ottoman empire.They will rule until 1840.

While many Egyptian immigrated to Israel at that time,Soldiers,Slaves,And farmers.Ibrahim pasha,As the absolute ruler of the area,Treat the non Muslims with great respect,In order to gain recognition from the European empires,Especially Russia,But it didn’t help him much in the end.He allowed many European consular and post houses to be posted in the land,And the European countries residents could seek protection from the representative of that country in case of an attack from the Arabs or injustice from the Ottoman ruler,An important fact in future This will change the Jews rights in Israel for the better,Though its still leave them totally defenseless against the Arab oppression.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=DPseCvbPsKsC&pg=PA18&dq=ibrahim+pasha&hl=ja&ei=lBomTImUDtCPcd6V7PAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=ibrahim%20pasha&f=false
(page 20)



1834:The Arab rebellion against the Egyptians.The Arab villages around Nablus rebelled against the Egyptians and refusing conscript to the army,The rebellion and riot spread all Over the country,And violence and massacre and rape of Jews and Christian occurred in Jerusalem,Safed and Hevron.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA342&dq=ibrahim+pasha+jews&hl=ja&ei=iRkmTM2jPIykcdvw8NgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=ibrahim%20pasha%20jews&f=false

(page 340)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=jacob+de+hass&hl=ja&ei=ZhKOTPGRAYOOvQOPyIXoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=1834%20jews&f=false
(page 393)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4XV9tgWpPt8C&pg=PA17&dq=1834+jews+massacer+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=SxOOTK_OGoXSuwPw8bznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 17)
Rabbi Issak ben solomon describe public rape of women and decapitation of man in Safed.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n4kTdYgwQPkC&pg=PA72&dq=ransom+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=oEeZTMrjI4_yvQO_ydjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=%20jews%20safed%20&f=false
(page 119)
It seem that the survives fled naked to the Fields and waited fro 24 days until they could return.

In 3 months the Egyptian quail the rebellion,Exiling 10000 Arabs and executing many of the leaders,And confiscating their guns.

The Jews were expelled from Safed in June 1834,But in july they return with help of the Druze.
In  Hebron,A massacre of the Jews started after the Turks entered the city.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4XV9tgWpPt8C&pg=PA17&dq=1834+jews+massacer+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=SxOOTK_OGoXSuwPw8bznBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=hebron&f=false
(page 17)
On the same time after the Egyptians allow Israel bek of Safed to settle with 15 families in an agriculture farm near Safed.They have some success but in 1841 they go bankrupt.But the idea of Jews rebuilding their nation by returning to work of the land, And buying lands in the holy land,And work in agriculture to be more connected to the land will live on.

1836:The Polish rabbi,Rabbi Kalisher,Advocate for rich Jews to buy lands in Israel,In order to restore the Jewish Independence in Israel.Many Jews are influence by that and return to live in Israel.This is consider to be the one of the first corner stones of modern Zionism.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA445&dq=kalisher&hl=ja&ei=bRsmTJmdI86XcZ3iga8C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=kalisher&f=false




1837: Big earth quick destroy Safed and Tiberia.2000 Jews dies.,Many of the surviving leave to Jerusalem and Yaffo.This make the living conditions inside the walls of Jerusalem to be very crowded,And this inspier Jews to seek life outside of the walls.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=VkA6-0-aDdIC&pg=PA373&dq=1837+earthquake+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=8homTMe_IszBcdnM1OQC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false

1838:The Druze and Arabs of Safed massacre and rob again the Jews in the Galil.An eye witness report about that:
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA342&dq=ibrahim+pasha+jews&hl=ja&ei=iRkmTM2jPIykcdvw8NgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=acre&f=false
(page 342)

1838: The first British consulat is founded in Jerusalem.The British consuls chose to protect the Jews in Israel and declaried that every Israeli,Reagrdless if he is a  British citizen or not deserve protection from the British government.
The reason that a Christian country,That its massacres of Jews during the Crusade period is well remembered chose to protect the Jews is indid surpriseing.Since every Europian power seek to influence as much a It can on parts of the decline Ottoaman empire,France was the protector of Catholics,While Russia was the protecture of the Greek orthodox,The British protected the Jews,And later the Russian and the Germans would offer their protection as well,This would be later in the 80s and 90s a very important factor that would aloud Jews to carry a weapon and ride a hourse and defend them self and their honor, Something that they couldnt have done for at list 700 years,
Jewish imigration to the land of Israel in the past,Failed to deliver their goals of renewal of the national independent of the Jewish poeple in its homeland Israel because of the abscent of thoise basic rights,The modern  Jewish imigartions to the land of Israel would be successful in acheaving their national independent goals becaus of those basic rights
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=olWKvv0tlqMC&pg=PA33&dq=JAMES+FIN+HEBRON+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=xhONTO61Jo-MvQOPs9DcBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 56)

1840:The French ambasdor in Damscus blame the Jews in a Blood ritual accusation.

A christian monk had had become missing,And the French ambasador blame the Jews for killing the monk and using his blood to make the Pesach bread,A false accusation that many Jews were executed for it with no justice in the 12-16 centuries in Europe.

The Arabs arrested many Jews,Including children,Some were forced to convert to Isalm,And some died in prison or from tourches,Until international pressure led to their relies ,With help of Ibrahim pasha himself and also the generouse English Jew,Sir Moses Montfury.But for the Arabs in the area,The idea that Jews drink blood become a fact ever since,a year later the same accusation occurred again in Hevron.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PK-TPKvmG7UC&pg=PA139&dq=jews+of+die+el+kamar&hl=ja&ei=2BMmTJykMpDfcc_akckC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false




1841:The Arabs in Nablus decided to force all the Sameretans to Islam.The Samaretens turn to the Jews for help.Rabbi Gagin,The great rabbi of Jerusalem,Address the Arabs,And explained them that the Samaretans are a branch of the Israeli nation,And they were speared by the Arabs.Ever since then,The Sameretens are brothers with the Jews.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=pzo6KAH3FmUC&pg=PA122&dq=samaritans+gagin&hl=ja&ei=QBsmTOmCI9S8cd2h8acC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=samaritans%20gagin&f=false




http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=pzo6KAH3FmUC&pg=PA75&dq=556+samaritan+revolt&hl=ja&ei=j5N2TP3CMIGIvgPt5tmyBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=jews%201840&f=false




1842:Rabi Elkalai ,Publish his book,in which he advocate Jews to hurry up and return to live in Israel,Speak Hebrew,Collect the money of the Jews in the diaspora in banks,And buy lands in Israel with it,and cultivated the land with Jewish farmers.

The book influenced many Jews,Together with the same ideas from Kalisher and Bibas,To come to Israel.Many of them seteld in Yaffo.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA446&dq=elkalai&hl=ja&ei=wxsmTPDVNI6xca3pxKgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=elkalai&f=false




On the same year the Ottoman return to control the land.And Israel beck move to Jerusalem and established a Hebrew print house there.

1845:James fin is the British ambasador to Jerusalem.With his favor to the Jews,He protect them form the Arab daily violence until his retire in 1862.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=KzN2_eaDhz4C&pg=PA37&dq=alexander+finn+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=Xh4mTNPWDcjIcc2w0dAC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=alexander%20finn%20jerusalem&f=false




http://books.google.com/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&pg=PA76&dq=jews+under+the+abbas+dynasty+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9VgnTMWGKs-HkQXnoK2PAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jews%20under%20the%20abbas%20dynasty%20in%20palestine&f=false




1849:Sir Moshe montfuri support the Jews of Israel,He generously help the many Jews that survived the earth quake in the Galil,And he help to repair the tomb of Rachel(the mother of the Efraim,Menashe,And Benyamin Israeli tribes) in Beit lechem.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=qmBtXoM1VLwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Sir+Moses+Haim+Montefiore&hl=ja&ei=iCAmTKOJMc_Qcf3f5cwC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=safed&f=false

On that year,The Arab brutaly expeled the Jews from Tiberia
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+dhimmi&hl=ja&ei=CDqjTNeNK42OvQPRnKn7Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hebron&f=false

(page 51)

1851:The leader of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem,Rabbi Tsuref,The rabbi that helped in 1816 to lift off the arab band from 1700,Was assasisnat by the Arabs.

http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/features/the-first-official-victim-of-terror-1.245307




On the same year, Fin,The British ambasador to Jerusalem,Buys a vineyard near Jerusalem,And employ Jews to work in it.They build a synagogue near it and called Kerem avraham.This would be the first jewish settellment outside of the walls of Jerusalem.Fin later sold the vineyard to the Jews before living to England in 1862.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=lXGf39q2UDYC&pg=PA320&dq=alexander+finn+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=FBwmTJHnB4TQcdzGiagC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%20vineyard&f=false
Fins noticed that many of the Jews in Jerusalem are artisans,Some are very skilled smiths,glass makers,jewlery makers,carpenters,tailors ,dyers,But they couldnt find any employment since the Christians never bought from them and the Muslims simply didnt want to pay them for their services,And there for Fin wanted to give those poor Jews an opportunity to make a living
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=olWKvv0tlqMC&pg=PA33&dq=JAMES+FIN+HEBRON+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=xhONTO61Jo-MvQOPs9DcBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 65)
It seem that the rabbis of Jerusalem objected the employment of the poor Jews in  James fins planetation,Because they were afaraid that this was just another missionary project to  convert poor Jews in exchange for food,Since missionaris all over Israel worked very hard to convert Jews and Muslims to Christianity,And some times payde good money to intier Muslim viliges to convert.But because the condidtion of the Jews was so poor,And they simply starved to death,Even more Jews,Including rabbis and women came and ask to be employed,Just so they could feed their familes
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=olWKvv0tlqMC&pg=PA33&dq=JAMES+FIN+HEBRON+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=xhONTO61Jo-MvQOPs9DcBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 73)

1851:The small Jewish community in Hebron is oppressed by the Ottoman governor,A local arab from the area,And many of them fled to Jerusalem,Until finally the Ottomans remove him by force,After he revolted against them.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=olWKvv0tlqMC&pg=PA33&dq=JAMES+FIN+HEBRON+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=xhONTO61Jo-MvQOPs9DcBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jews%20hebron&f=false
(page 33)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n4kTdYgwQPkC&pg=PA72&dq=ransom+jews+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=oEeZTMrjI4_yvQO_ydjnDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ransom%20jews%20jerusalem&f=false
(PAGE 71,IT SEEMS THATS ITS ALREADY STARTED IN 1830 UNTIL 1859)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+dhimmi&hl=ja&ei=CDqjTNeNK42OvQPRnKn7Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hebron&f=false
The Jews had to pay 5000 Piasters annualy in addition to the rest of the taxes and the pol tax,Just not be murdered by the Arabs.In 1852 the Arabs demdend more money,If not they will expel the Jews from the city
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+dhimmi&hl=ja&ei=CDqjTNeNK42OvQPRnKn7Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hebron&f=false
(page 51)

1854:James fin describe the poor condition of the Jews in Jeriusalem and their hunger becouse of the Otoman-Russian war in particaly and becosue of the Muslim oppesrrsion in generaly
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=olWKvv0tlqMC&pg=PA33&dq=JAMES+FIN+HEBRON+JEWS&hl=ja&ei=xhONTO61Jo-MvQOPs9DcBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=jerusalem&f=false
(page 60)
1852:Rabbi Bibas settle in Hevron.Being inspiered by the 1825 Greek liberation from Ottoman control,He advocate Jews to do the same:To study physics and agriculture,To train in using weapon and to return to live in Israel.

1854:Rabbi David ben shimon return from morocco to Jerusalem.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=zhdp9btWGWQC&pg=PA225&dq=david+ben+shimon&hl=ja&ei=4yUmTIv0JtDXcdbP1O8C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=david%20ben%20shimon&f=false




1855:Sir Montfuri,With his mission to help the Jews to independently support them self,Build a wheat meal in Jerusalem,And buys a farm near Yaffo,but in the mean time lend it to German and American(non-Jews) Templers,That live there until they are massacred by the Arabs in 1858.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yEOM0hVvCgMC&pg=PA149&dq=the+americans+templars+in+jaffa&hl=ja&ei=FCgmTNGLHM3McOy87KwC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=1858&f=false




1856:The Ottoman empire canceled the Jaziya tax that non-Muslims are charged every year.This tax that Jews had to pay for 1300 years,And for most of the years was payed from generous donations of the righous and pius Jewish communities of Europe,Was a great step for the Jews from one hand,Though from the other hand the actual reason for Jews over sea to donat money to the Jews in Israel didn’t exist any more,And that a big motivation for the Jews in Israel to initiate new enterprise in industry and agriculture that would supply work to all the population in Israel.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yEOM0hVvCgMC&pg=PA149&dq=the+americans+templars+in+jaffa&hl=ja&ei=FCgmTNGLHM3McOy87KwC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=1858&f=false




1857:With the help of Montfury,The first Jewish neigberhood out side of the walls of Jerusalem was established,Mishkanot shaananim.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=lXGf39q2UDYC&pg=PA320&dq=alexander+finn+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=FBwmTJHnB4TQcdzGiagC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=alexander%20finn%20jerusalem&f=false
1860:The Russian empire build a big hospital outside of the walls of Jerusalem The existance of such a big building out side of the walls made it harder for Arab bandits to pray on people outside of the walls without being spoted by someone,And this made is safer for Jews to do what they couldnt have done for hondreds of years-to dwell outside of the walls.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=ZMABf2jrk6cC&pg=PA63&dq=the+ruusian+compond+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=uqwmTPqNI4nQcc_F8NoC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false


The danger that expected Jews outside of the walls of the cities for houndred of years stile exist in the 19 century.:

http://books.google.com/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&pg=PA76&dq=jews+under+the+abbas+dynasty+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9VgnTMWGKs-HkQXnoK2PAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=palestine&f=false

(page 371)




On the same year two Jews from Jerusalem, Ashkenazi and Sapharadi,Yehishiua yalin and Shaul yehuda,Buy a farm near Jerusalem in the Arab vilage of Kaluniya,But after the Arabs attack them and mugg them They return to Jerusalem with out nothing.

1863:The Jews of Yaffo are led by Haim amzaleg.On the same time,Israel bek publish the first Hebrew newspaper.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=LNEvfDeHurUC&pg=PA31&dq=firsdt+hebrew+newspaper+in+israel&hl=ja&ei=E60mTJmpHNGqcebrnMgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false

(page 31)


1865:The second neighberhood outside the walls is builded;Machane Israel.



1867:Nachalt shivaa is established outside of the walls.

On the same year, The Ottoman officilay canceled the Omar laws,That forbid non-Muslim to build new houses and synagogues or repair old ones,And buy lands.But the law was permited to residents of the empire alone,While subject of foreign countries were still prohibited.The realty was that the Ottomans still put allot of hardship on Jews to buy lands and to build houses,For various reasons,Waiting until the other side will give up,Or simply pay a lot of bribe to get thing going.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yvjcpJ_8E9oC&pg=PA424&dq=1867+otomans+laws&hl=ja&ei=la0mTNnqHozCcdf9pcIC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false

(page 424)


On same year,German Christians settled in Haifa and Yaffo,The Templers.

1870:Mikve Israel,The first Jewish-Hebrew agriculture school is established, near Yaffo.

The head of the school was Karl neter,That belived that the only if Jews would become productive they could libereted their land,Without being needing donation from  Jews from the Diaspora.Many Jews studied in that school and use what they learned to cultivet the land,To dry the swamps,And make the desert bloom.

1871:Rabbi Akiva Yosef Shlazinger of Hungary,Come to Israel,And accepted by the Jews in great celebration.The rabbi was a great advocate for Jews to return to live in Israel,To rebuild the industry and agriculture of the land and to build a Jewish army.He predicted that once the Jews in Israel will numbered 600,000 the world nations would let the Jews to govern itself independently,Which mysteriusly,Is exactly what happened in 1948,When Israel declared its independenc.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4XV9tgWpPt8C&pg=PA8&dq=akiva+yosef+schlesinger&hl=ja&ei=X6smTM33JoOecYPlvLgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=akiva%20yosef%20schlesinger&f=false
It would be his scholars that will put in practice his teaching of cutting off the dependency in Diaspora donations,And to establish a dynamic,Productive society that is based on the Tora and the Hebrew language,Like the founders of Petach tikva in 1878.

1872:Jews from Nachalat shiva tries to buy lands near Yaffo,And the Ottomans Torpedo the deal.

1873:Beit david,Near the walls of Jerusalm is builded.

1874:Mea shearim near the walls is buildedd.

1878:Petach tikva is established.The first Jewish settelment out side the 4 holy cities(Jerusalem,Hevron,Tiberia,Safed)is established.

The followres of rabbi Shlezinger,Rabbi Solomn,David gutman,And Yehoshua shtamper bought the lands from an Egyptian vilage called Malabes,Which most of its residents either died from the Malaria(the entire coastle area was full of Malaria infested swamps)
or abandod it,And the owners lived in Yaffo.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=2kSovzudhFUC&pg=PA918&dq=jews+jaffa&hl=ja&ei=9pMmTMuEJYrZca-t2O0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBzgU#v=onepage&q=jews%20jaffa&f=false


http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=AexWkV0veJwC&pg=PA121&dq=yehoshua+shtamper&hl=ja&ei=p6gmTNbdNJC9cbWGyL0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=yehoshua%20shtamper&f=false




After creating a new wail to the village,New fields were cultivated,And in the end of the year the Jews loaded the harvest crops and delivered it to Jerusalem,Practicing the old agriculture religious comends ,That couldnt be observed since the destruction of the second temple,1800 years before that.

The settellment will encourage the establishment of other Jewish settellments.Petach tikva,Being a non Muslim teritorty with no defending walls,Was vournable to Arab bandits attacks,Therefore the Jews establish their own guarding union.This guarding union will inspier later the establishment of the Shomer in the Galil,That will eventually will grow to the Hagana,And later the Israel defence force.



1882:The oppression and massacre of the Jews in Russia and Romania,led 25,000 young,Religious,Nationally motivated Jews to come to Israel.On the same time exactly Jews from Yemen decied that the time ad come and they march all the way in the desert to Jerusalem.The Etihopian Jews also tries to return to Israel,But fail.

The Jews used the help that rich Jews generously gave them,Like the baron Rotchild,And dired off the swamps with great effort,

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=N0TLvWXFIi0C&pg=PA54&dq=hadera+pioneers&hl=ja&ei=OKomTLWcNs3BceTx3M8C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hadera%20pioneers&f=false


http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=DpwFFZG9kDAC&pg=PA75&dq=yemen+aliaya+1882&hl=ja&ei=kqomTLSJDMLIcd-TnLwC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false



 The estblishment of new settellments,Especially in Judea and the Galil,Like Rishon lezion,Zikron yakov,Hadera and Rosh pina, Would be the base for new waves of Jews returning back to their homeland and in 66 years revive their liberty.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=2kSovzudhFUC&pg=PA918&dq=jews+jaffa&hl=ja&ei=9pMmTMuEJYrZca-t2O0C&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBzgU#v=onepage&q=jews%20jaffa&f=false

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  1. Dead Sea Tours
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