The last Ottoman period(1769-1882)

1769:Dahar el omar support Egypt that declared its Independence from Ottoman control.

1770:Rabi Yom tov elgazi travel in Europe to collect donation to Israel.He will become the great rabbi of Jerusalem in 1782.


1771-1775:The Egyptian rebellion.The Egyptian ruler Ali bay fight against the Ottomans together with Omar,Using the Russian empire as their allay.But in 1774,After the war of Russia and Turkey is over and with death of Ali bay,Omar is left alone,And in 1775 he was murdered,And the Ottoman control was restored.The new governes would be Albanian families,Led by Achmad el Jazar,That his grand adviser and minister would be Haim prchi,A Jew from Damascus.


(page 130)
During that time in 1771,Ali bey besiege Jerusalem and the Jews were blamed for that and were forced to pay an expensive bribe.
(page 21)

1775:A blood libel in Hebron against its Jews.Blood libel is called  in Hebrew Alilat dam,Which mean blood conspiracy.During the 12-16 century the Jews in West Europe were blamed in the ritual murder of Christians boys.The false accusation was that they used the boy blood in order to make the Passover bread,The Matza.
This was out of total ignorance by the Christians to the Jews strict diet and extra carefulness to get rid of the blood of a animal before consumption,And in all cases confession were extracted by tourters,And without actual evidence.In some cases,Like in England,There weren't even a body.
Many Jews were either expelled,Forced to convert to Christianity,Or executed because of such accusation.Many Jewish communities in France and Germany were expeled to Poland because of such accusations during the 14 and 15 centuries.
In the 19 century,Blood libels occurred in East Europe,But with the conduction of proper and fair trail where the defenders can be heared,And convicting with  actual evidence is required,All accusation lost in court.
During that time the knowledge's about blood libels came to the middle east and up until today many Arabs in the middle east are convinced that it is true.

On the same year it seems that the Ottomans,That renew their control over Israel,Encourage Jews to re-settele in Israel,And even orginised it,Simply because they refered to it as a source of income.They would rent a few ships every year and charge the passengers for the travel.it seem that hundreds of Jews returned to Israel every year.
(page 30)

1776:The new goverenor of sidon is in charge over north Israel.Inorder to keep the security in the area from the Bedouim that moved to north Israel from north Syria in the 1740s,He gatther a big army of merceneries from Bosnia,Albania,North africa,And even Afganistan and pay them by heavey taxation and extortion of the population,Though,On the same time encouraging Jews to live in Acre and Haifa for example,So he could over taxed them and extort them.
(page 62)
1776:Ali bay's son,Muhamad ,Conquer Jaffa and massacre all of its Inhabitants,including Jews,And build a big pyramid from their skulls.


(PAGE 356)

1777:The followers of the Hasidut movement return to live in Israel.

The founder of the movemet was rabbi Baal shem tov(1698-1760)in east Europe.

400 scholars came,And because in Jerusalem they were refused entry by the Arabs,And in safed they faced hostility from the Hasidut- opposers,They settled in Tiberia.Their leader was rabbi Menachem mendel of vitsbek,Which was one of the founders of the movement in east Europe.from that point and on,Many more Hasidut followers,And many more Hasidut opposers would return to live in Israel.


1782:The Ottoman governors of Jerusalem decied to find an addition way to extort money from the Jews,Beside the already expensive taxes and tributs that many Jewish comunities all over the world would donate just to make sure that their brothers that guard Jerusalem would be safe.The Ottomas tax the Jews heavely for the right to be buried in the mount of olives.Jews had been buried there for thousands of years,Since it was a great privilag,And many Jews from the diaspora came to Jerusalem in their late years just to be buried in the mount of olivs.
The mount of olives is right next to mount moria,Which is the temple mount,Of which upon him the first and second temple stood,And today there are Muslim mosque instead of it.The Jews belived that in the end of times,After the Meshiach would come and defeat evil forever,The dead would return to live.Since the Meshiach is suppost to come from the mount of Olives,Jews belived that by being burried there will assur that they would return to live first.
The Jews first payed a heavy *bribe* to annul that decree,But shortly after the Arabs demanded a direct order from the sultan.it took the Jews  a few years until the got that decree annuled by the sultan,By then,Heavey taxes were imposed on every Jew that wished to be burried there.
(page 143)

1783:El jazar,the ruler of north Israel,Probably with he influence of his finacial adviser Haim parchi,Give some tax reduction to the Jews that come to re-build Safed after the 1759 earthquake and the 1771-1775 Dahar el omar rebelion,Though it seem that as soon as Napoelon invade Israel Jazar annul that attitude and extorted large sums of funds from the Jews in the north.
(page 19)

1790:The son of the great rabbi of Jerusalem ,Rabi yom tov elgazi,Yaakov,Is murdered by Arabs,Because of the huge debt that the Jewish community have.

(page 145)

1798:Rabbi nachman of braslev,The grandson the Baal shem tov and Nachman of horodonka,Visit In Israel.He claim that a Jew cant be a Jew without dweling in the land of Israel.Other famous word of him is the famous Jewish song:Very narrow bridge.


Rabbi Braslev claims that a Jew cant be realy a Jew unless he dwell in the land of Israel is not new at all,espcialy for famouse Europian Jewish rabbis.the most impotant Ashkenazi rabbi,rabbi Shlomo itshaki,or Rashi as he was called,which is alos the most important commentor of the Bible and the Talmud among all Jews regardless of their diaspora,claim many times in his comments on the Bible that while dwelling in the diaspora,in exile,there is no meaning for a Jew to observe the Mitsvot,or the rulles and traditions of Israel,or Judesam.the only legitimit reason for it is that is for the Jew to remember his fathers traditions so when he will return to live in Israel he wont have to learn it from zero,like its new for him.how ever Rashi couldnt encourage Jews to return to live in Israel becouse in that time the Crusaders occupied Israel and massacered many Jews there.

1798:The French empire,Led by Napoleon Bonapart,Invaded Egypt and from there reached Israel,In a mission to cut between Britan and India.

The French first conqured Gaza and Yaffo,And massacre many of the populats,Including Jews.the Jews of Gaza fled the city and never returned to it.
Fearing the same massacre would occure in Jerusalem,The great rabbi of Jerusalem,Rabbi Meyuchas,Allow the Jews to participate in the reinforcing the walls of Jerusalem even on Shabat.Napoleon doesn’t get to Jerusalem in the end.He go to attack Acre,Which is protected by Jazar and Parchi.The city walls are very strong,And the British navi help the city.Napoleon try to convice Haim prchi to shift to his side,Promising to reestablish the Jewish independent nation of Israel,But Parchi don’t belive him,Probably from fearing that if the word that a Jew helped Napoleon,The Arabs would massacre the Jews in Jerusalem.



(page 71,about the Turks plan to massacer the non-Muslims if napoleon would invade Jerusalem)

(page 164)
(page 118)
After the French finally break through the walls,They find another wall,And that break their moral,And Napoleon desert his army and return alone to France.

Soon after,The Jews in Safed are being attacked by the Arabs.
This acts of violence show that Napoleons pledge's to the Jews to take his side for the benefits of their nation was well heared by every single one in the land and it fueled their already existing hate towards the Jews,And this is probably the reason why Parchi denied Napolion's offer.

(PAGE 71)

napoleon said;
Jews!the only nation in the world that over thousand of years the tyrany and the lust to conquer of the nations had succeded in taking only your homeland and your independent existence away from you.
Wake up!wake up joyfully,you ,the exiled ones!a war that has never happened before in history is hapening now for self defence by a nation that its enemies had conspired to rub and divid among them its lands by the twist of a pen of ministers,this nation is now avanging its shame and the shame that other occupaied nations forsaken from the heart under the burden of slavery,including your 2000 years of shame that was impose on you:we offer you on the same time to restore the land of israel to your hands.
this young army that the divine had send  me to guide:that justice rule it and victory its his companion,made its center in jerusalem and will reach damascus in a few days.

The legal owners of the land of Israel!the great nation that dosent trade with people and nations,France of course,unlike the once that sold your fathers fathers to the rest of the nations,is calling you now to accept to your hands what was already conqured for you to be governord.
Wake up!prove that the powers of your former oppresors didnt reduced the spirit of the descendets of those heros,that their band of brothers could be an honor even to Rome and Sparta,and that the 2000 years of your oppresion didnt made you into slaves.

Hury up!here comes the moment that might not return in another 1000 years,to demand to return your legal civil rights among the nations that were not given to you for thousands of years,and demand for yourself a national existance as a nation among nations and your natural and unlimited right to worship God according to your belife in public and for ever.

This was publish on 20 of februar 1799.
the rumor about Napolion and a posible Jewish revolt were extragereted in occupaied Israel and the Jews suffered alot from that,for example:
newspapers  in france publish that Napoleon recruted Jews in Asia and they are now advancing toward Allepo,a complite lie.
The Ottomans heard about that and opresed the Jews in Jerusalem:because they heard that 12,000 Jews joined the French army that besiege Acre.Treats of massacres and rape were made on the Jews and they were forced to pay a bribe to annul that massacre and rape.the rabbis of Jerusalem sended messengers to Europe bagging for help and donations to save their lifes.
all the Jews were foreced to work in the constraction of the cities fortifications and Jews that got tired from the hard work were brutaly beaten.

1804:After Jazars death,His son Suliman,Succeed him,With he guidance of Haim parchi,That use his high position to help the Jews that return to live in Israel.


1806:Suliman stretch his control over Acre,Yaffo and Gaza,And from 1809 all of Sirya.But find resistatnce 
 in Nablus.

1807:Mahmud abu nabut is appointed by Suliman to govern Yaffo,That ruled until 1818.He build walls from stones taken from the ruins of Ashkelon and Cesaria.

1808:Rabbi Bajaio buy land in Hevron to build a synagogue.


1809:The arrival of many of the followers of the Hasidut main opposer,The Gaoln of vilna,Up until 1840 more then 5000 came to Israel.They were called Prushim.


The Prushim have a clear intention to restore the independent of the Israeli nation.They even train in weapons,And didnt’t let the Bedouin humiliate them,In one occasion,A Bedouin bandits kidnapped a grope of Jews near Yaffa and demand the Prushim to pay the ransom,The Proshim pretended to submite to them,And then attack the Bedouin and killed them,Realising the Jews.

(page 119)

1811:Rabbi Bajaio buy 800 acres in old Hevron.


1815:The rabbis of the Jews in Hebron are arrested and torched until they are ransomed thanks to gemneous donations from Jews in Western Europe.
(PAGE 71)

1816:After rabbi Tsoref pay the Arabs their old debt from 1700,The band on Ashkenazi Jews from living in Jerusalem is lifted and many Jews ,Especialy Proshim,Use the opportunity and move to Jeruaslem,And its very soon the Jews in Jerusalem become the majority,And the Perushim appointed Jewish guard on the walls,Settle agriculture farms,And they actually builded the base for the establishment of the Jewish independent in Israel.


1818:Yosef metelon,A Jew from Yaffo,Buy land and build a small hotel to house the Jewish pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem.This will be the base to the revival of the Jewish community of Yaffo,And later.Tel aviv.Very soon,A small communti\y of Jews is established in Yaffo.

1819:Haim parchi is being assassinat by the next governor of Acre,Sulimans son ,Abudala.

Abudala also attack the Jews of Safed and Tiberia,Claimming that all he time Parchi was in charge,He gave the Jews a discount in the Dhimi Jaziya tax,That the Oamr laws demand he Jews pay to the Muslim for their *protection*.He demendad an imposible prise to pay,And the Jews had to pay him with their land,Houses and even the close they had on.
(page 71)
This was the time that many old Jewish towns in the Galil were abounded by the Jews fearing the Arabs attacks.Many of those would become Arab towns,Like En zeitin and Meiron.

(page 146)


1820:Rabbi Yeshayau ajmon,Buy a hotel to house the Jews on their pilgrim to Jerusalem.Every month a rabbi from Jerusalem came to Yaffo to guide the Jews there,After 17 years,Yaffo appointed its own rabbi,The same rabbi that came to guide them for 17 years,Rabbi Yehuda margoza.

(page 36)

1821:The brothers of Haim parchi assembled a Turkish army and storm the Galil, Avenging their brother, Seiging Abudala in Acre,For 14 months they rule the Galil.After that their older brother was poisoned by a traitor,And the brothers return to Damascus.

(page 146)

1825:The Arabs is Jerusalem rebelled against Abudala,And failed.

1831:Jews from Lebanon participate in siege on the Sanur castle,As a part of the Druze forces from Lebanon,Sent to help Abuddla to fight the Syrian families that control Nablus.

1832:The Egyptian occupation.Ibrahim pasha conqured Israel and Syria in his fight against the Ottoman empire.They will rule until 1840.

While many Egyptian immigrated to Israel at that time,Soldiers,Slaves,And farmers.Ibrahim pasha,As the absolute ruler of the area,Treat the non Muslims with great respect,In order to gain recognition from the European empires,Especially Russia,But it didn’t help him much in the end.He allowed many European consular and post houses to be posted in the land,And the European countries residents could seek protection from the representative of that country in case of an attack from the Arabs or injustice from the Ottoman ruler,An important fact in future This will change the Jews rights in Israel for the better,Though its still leave them totally defenseless against the Arab oppression.

(page 20)

1834:The Arab rebellion against the Egyptians.The Arab villages around Nablus rebelled against the Egyptians and refusing conscript to the army,The rebellion and riot spread all Over the country,And violence and massacre and rape of Jews and Christian occurred in Jerusalem,Safed and Hevron.


(page 340)
(page 393)
(page 17)
Rabbi Issak ben solomon describe public rape of women and decapitation of man in Safed.
(page 119)
It seem that the survives fled naked to the Fields and waited fro 24 days until they could return.

In 3 months the Egyptian quail the rebellion,Exiling 10000 Arabs and executing many of the leaders,And confiscating their guns.

The Jews were expelled from Safed in June 1834,But in july they return with help of the Druze.
In  Hebron,A massacre of the Jews started after the Turks entered the city.
(page 17)

On the same time after the Egyptians allow Israel bek of Safed to settle with 15 families in an agriculture farm near Safed.They have some success but in 1841 they go bankrupt.But the idea of Jews rebuilding their nation by returning to work of the land, And buying lands in the holy land,And work in agriculture to be more connected to the land will live on.

1836:The Polish rabbi,Rabbi Kalisher,Advocate for rich Jews to buy lands in Israel,In order to restore the Jewish Independence in Israel.Many Jews are influence by that and return to live in Israel.This is consider to be the one of the first corner stones of modern Zionism.


1837: Big earth quick destroy Safed and Tiberia.2000 Jews dies.,Many of the surviving leave to Jerusalem and Yaffo.This make the living conditions inside the walls of Jerusalem to be very crowded,And this inspier Jews to seek life outside of the walls.


1838:The Druze and Arabs of Safed massacre and rob again the Jews in the Galil.An eye witness report about that:
(page 342)

1838: The first British consulat is founded in Jerusalem.The British consuls chose to protect the Jews in Israel and declaried that every Israeli,Reagrdless if he is a  British citizen or not deserve protection from the British government.
The reason that a Christian country,That its massacres of Jews during the Crusade period is well remembered chose to protect the Jews is indid surpriseing.Since every Europian power seek to influence as much a It can on parts of the decline Ottoaman empire,France was the protector of Catholics,While Russia was the protecture of the Greek orthodox,The British protected the Jews,And later the Russian and the Germans would offer their protection as well,This would be later in the 80s and 90s a very important factor that would aloud Jews to carry a weapon and ride a hourse and defend them self and their honor, Something that they couldnt have done for at list 700 years,
Jewish imigration to the land of Israel in the past,Failed to deliver their goals of renewal of the national independent of the Jewish poeple in its homeland Israel because of the abscent of thoise basic rights,The modern  Jewish imigartions to the land of Israel would be successful in acheaving their national independent goals becaus of those basic rights
(page 56)

1840:The French ambasdor in Damscus blame the Jews in a Blood ritual accusation.

A christian monk had had become missing,And the French ambasador blame the Jews for killing the monk and using his blood to make the Pesach bread,A false accusation that many Jews were executed for it with no justice in the 12-16 centuries in Europe.

The Arabs arrested many Jews,Including children,Some were forced to convert to Isalm,And some died in prison or from tourches,Until international pressure led to their relies ,With help of Ibrahim pasha himself and also the generouse English Jew,Sir Moses Montfury.But for the Arabs in the area,The idea that Jews drink blood become a fact ever since,a year later the same accusation occurred again in Hevron.


1841:The Arabs in Nablus decided to force all the Sameretans to Islam.The Samaretens turn to the Jews for help.Rabbi Gagin,The great rabbi of Jerusalem,Address the Arabs,And explained them that the Samaretans are a branch of the Israeli nation,And they were speared by the Arabs.Ever since then,The Sameretens are brothers with the Jews.



1842:Rabi Elkalai ,Publish his book,in which he advocate Jews to hurry up and return to live in Israel,Speak Hebrew,Collect the money of the Jews in the diaspora in banks,And buy lands in Israel with it,and cultivated the land with Jewish farmers.

The book influenced many Jews,Together with the same ideas from Kalisher and Bibas,To come to Israel.Many of them seteld in Yaffo.


On the same year the Ottoman return to control the land.And Israel beck move to Jerusalem and established a Hebrew print house there.

1845:James fin is the British ambasador to Jerusalem.With his favor to the Jews,He protect them form the Arab daily violence until his retire in 1862.



1849:Sir Moshe montfuri support the Jews of Israel,He generously help the many Jews that survived the earth quake in the Galil,And he help to repair the tomb of Rachel(the mother of the Efraim,Menashe,And Benyamin Israeli tribes) in Beit lechem.


On that year,The Arab brutaly expeled the Jews from Tiberia

(page 51)

1851:The leader of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem,Rabbi Tsuref,The rabbi that helped in 1816 to lift off the arab band from 1700,Was assasisnat by the Arabs.


On the same year, Fin,The British ambasador to Jerusalem,Buys a vineyard near Jerusalem,And employ Jews to work in it.They build a synagogue near it and called Kerem avraham.This would be the first jewish settellment outside of the walls of Jerusalem.Fin later sold the vineyard to the Jews before living to England in 1862.

Fins noticed that many of the Jews in Jerusalem are artisans,Some are very skilled smiths,glass makers,jewlery makers,carpenters,tailors ,dyers,But they couldnt find any employment since the Christians never bought from them and the Muslims simply didnt want to pay them for their services,And there for Fin wanted to give those poor Jews an opportunity to make a living
(page 65)
It seem that the rabbis of Jerusalem objected the employment of the poor Jews in  James fins planetation,Because they were afaraid that this was just another missionary project to  convert poor Jews in exchange for food,Since missionaris all over Israel worked very hard to convert Jews and Muslims to Christianity,And some times payde good money to intier Muslim viliges to convert.But because the condidtion of the Jews was so poor,And they simply starved to death,Even more Jews,Including rabbis and women came and ask to be employed,Just so they could feed their familes
(page 73)

1851:The small Jewish community in Hebron is oppressed by the Ottoman governor,A local arab from the area,And many of them fled to Jerusalem,Until finally the Ottomans remove him by force,After he revolted against them.
(page 33)
The Jews had to pay 5000 Piasters annualy in addition to the rest of the taxes and the pol tax,Just not be murdered by the Arabs.In 1852 the Arabs demdend more money,If not they will expel the Jews from the city
(page 51)

1854:James fin describe the poor condition of the Jews in Jeriusalem and their hunger becouse of the Otoman-Russian war in particaly and becosue of the Muslim oppesrrsion in generaly
(page 60)
1852:Rabbi Bibas settle in Hevron.Being inspiered by the 1825 Greek liberation from Ottoman control,He advocate Jews to do the same:To study physics and agriculture,To train in using weapon and to return to live in Israel.

1854:Rabbi David ben shimon return from morocco to Jerusalem.


1855:Sir Montfuri,With his mission to help the Jews to independently support them self,Build a wheat meal in Jerusalem,And buys a farm near Yaffo,but in the mean time lend it to German and American(non-Jews) Templers,That live there until they are massacred by the Arabs in 1858.


1856:The Ottoman empire canceled the Jaziya tax that non-Muslims are charged every year.This tax that Jews had to pay for 1300 years,And for most of the years was payed from generous donations of the righous and pius Jewish communities of Europe,Was a great step for the Jews from one hand,Though from the other hand the actual reason for Jews over sea to donat money to the Jews in Israel didn’t exist any more,And that a big motivation for the Jews in Israel to initiate new enterprise in industry and agriculture that would supply work to all the population in Israel.


1857:With the help of Montfury,The first Jewish neigberhood out side of the walls of Jerusalem was established,Mishkanot shaananim.


1860:The Russian empire build a big hospital outside of the walls of Jerusalem The existance of such a big building out side of the walls made it harder for Arab bandits to pray on people outside of the walls without being spoted by someone,And this made is safer for Jews to do what they couldnt have done for hondreds of years-to dwell outside of the walls.


The danger that expected Jews outside of the walls of the cities for houndred of years stile exist in the 19 century.:


(page 371)

On the same year two Jews from Jerusalem, Ashkenazi and Sapharadi,Yehishiua yalin and Shaul yehuda,Buy a farm near Jerusalem in the Arab vilage of Kaluniya,But after the Arabs attack them and mugg them They return to Jerusalem with out nothing.

1863:The Jews of Yaffo are led by Haim amzaleg.On the same time,Israel bek publish the first Hebrew newspaper.


(page 31)

1865:The second neighberhood outside the walls is builded;Machane Israel.

1867:Nachalt shivaa is established outside of the walls.

On the same year, The Ottoman officilay canceled the Omar laws,That forbid non-Muslim to build new houses and synagogues or repair old ones,And buy lands.But the law was permited to residents of the empire alone,While subject of foreign countries were still prohibited.The realty was that the Ottomans still put allot of hardship on Jews to buy lands and to build houses,For various reasons,Waiting until the other side will give up,Or simply pay a lot of bribe to get thing going.


(page 424)

On same year,German Christians settled in Haifa and Yaffo,The Templers.

1870:Mikve Israel,The first Jewish-Hebrew agriculture school is established, near Yaffo.

The head of the school was Karl neter,That belived that the only if Jews would become productive they could libereted their land,Without being needing donation from  Jews from the Diaspora.Many Jews studied in that school and use what they learned to cultivet the land,To dry the swamps,And make the desert bloom.

1871:Rabbi Akiva Yosef Shlazinger of Hungary,Come to Israel,And accepted by the Jews in great celebration.The rabbi was a great advocate for Jews to return to live in Israel,To rebuild the industry and agriculture of the land and to build a Jewish army.He predicted that once the Jews in Israel will numbered 600,000 the world nations would let the Jews to govern itself independently,Which mysteriusly,Is exactly what happened in 1948,When Israel declared its independenc.

It would be his scholars that will put in practice his teaching of cutting off the dependency in Diaspora donations,And to establish a dynamic,Productive society that is based on the Tora and the Hebrew language,Like the founders of Petach tikva in 1878.

1872:Jews from Nachalat shiva tries to buy lands near Yaffo,And the Ottomans Torpedo the deal.

1873:Beit david,Near the walls of Jerusalm is builded.

1874:Mea shearim near the walls is buildedd.

1878:Petach tikva is established.The first Jewish settelment out side the 4 holy cities(Jerusalem,Hevron,Tiberia,Safed)is established.

The followres of rabbi Shlezinger,Rabbi Solomn,David gutman,And Yehoshua shtamper bought the lands from an Egyptian vilage called Malabes,Which most of its residents either died from the Malaria(the entire coastle area was full of Malaria infested swamps)
or abandod it,And the owners lived in Yaffo.



After creating a new wail to the village,New fields were cultivated,And in the end of the year the Jews loaded the harvest crops and delivered it to Jerusalem,Practicing the old agriculture religious comends ,That couldnt be observed since the destruction of the second temple,1800 years before that.

The settellment will encourage the establishment of other Jewish settellments.Petach tikva,Being a non Muslim teritorty with no defending walls,Was vournable to Arab bandits attacks,Therefore the Jews establish their own guarding union.This guarding union will inspier later the establishment of the Shomer in the Galil,That will eventually will grow to the Hagana,And later the Israel defence force.

1882:The oppression and massacre of the Jews in Russia and Romania,led 25,000 young,Religious,Nationally motivated Jews to come to Israel.On the same time exactly Jews from Yemen decied that the time ad come and they march all the way in the desert to Jerusalem.The Etihopian Jews also tries to return to Israel,But fail.

The Jews used the help that rich Jews generously gave them,Like the baron Rotchild,And dired off the swamps with great effort,



 The estblishment of new settellments,Especially in Judea and the Galil,Like Rishon lezion,Zikron yakov,Hadera and Rosh pina, Would be the base for new waves of Jews returning back to their homeland and in 66 years revive their liberty.


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