:1047 b.c to 1007b.c:The crowning of the Israelis first king, Saul, That unites the 12 Israeli tribes under the laws of their early prophet and leader, Moses.
Saul assemble a regular army from all the tribes and rebel against the control of the neighboring nations, His main warrior and general would be the next king, David.
Earlier mentions of the Hebrew-Israelis tribes come from the Amarna letters which are letters betwen the kings of Egypt to their vessel lords in the land that complain to their Egyptian patrons about the Hebrews taking over the country:
And also from the famous merneptah inscription.
2:1007 b.c to 977b.c:
The crowning of king David over Israel. David defeat and subdue all of the neighboring nations, Including the strong Philistine cities in the south and the Aramim kingdoms in the north. He conquers Jerusalem in the center of Israel and makes it the Kingdom’s capital.
A record the Davidian dynesty can be found in the Tel Dan astel inscription:
Muslim historian Masudi recalled that as well (page 109)
the tel dan astel testifies about the house of David,The traditional name for the kingdom of Judea, That was ruled by the Davidian dynasty for more then 400 years.
According to the Bible, David count the entire Hebrew men (available for military service) population as 800,000 from Israel and 400,000 from Judea, and Benjamin and levy tribes weren’t counted.
Archaeologists believe that they found King David’s palace, and it’s seem that is was used by all of the kings of Judea after him.
The golden age of King Solomon .Israel enjoy good relation with Egypt and the Phoenician, And gain a lot of profit from manning gold in Africa. The later Jewish Hellenistic historian Eupolemus write about that and its quoted in Esubius books from the 4 century a.d.
The king build the first temple in Jerusalem to house the ark of the covenant which the Israelis were carrying since the days of their old leader,Moses. The Israelis pilgrim to the temple three time in a year, In their most important holidays: Pesach, Shavuot and Sukot ,Bringing tributs from thier harvest as donations to the temple and as sacrifice.
Archaeological evidence to Israel strength at that time is abundant in the ruins of Megido, Gezer and Hatsor.
Josefus plavius,The 1 century Jewish historian report on king Solomon,As he report about all the Kings of Israel and Judea.
4:928b.c The split between Judea,that includ the Judea and Benjamin,and Shimon and Levi tribes, in the south to Israel,that includ the rest of the tribes in the north,Menashe,Efraim,Dan,Asher,Zvulon,Naftali,Gad,Reuven,Isashar,That led to horrible wars between the two sisters states. One war described in the Bible, Where half a million of Israeli soldiers were slain in the fight against Judean soldiers.
The wars attract foreign powers to try to enjoy the spoils, king of Egypt, Shishak invade Judea and plunder it. This is recorded in the karnak inscription.
5:908 b.c-867b.c: Though only recorded in the Bible, King Asa of Judea is reported to defend Judea against an Egyptian army that contained a million Black soldiers and defeat them. despite that Asa had to bribe the northern kingdom of Aram to join arms against Israel.
6:871b.c-852 b.c: Peace between the Judea and Israel lead to prospore. They join arms to fights against Aram in the north and profit from trade and mining in Africa trough their southern port in Eilat.
The Bible dosent record it but the king of Israel, Achab is mention in the Kurkh monoliht, Where he is depict as a strong partner of an alliance between Israel, Judea, Aram, Tyer and other nations against the big Assyrian army in the battle of Karkar, Where Achab is recorded to had the largest number of hourse chariots.
With Achabs death, Muab in the southern east bank of the Jordan river rebelled against Israel.It is described in the Meisha monolit ,The king of Muab:
7:850b.c-840b.c: The rebellion of Yehu. According to the Bible, In opposition to Israel disobedient to the laws of Moses, A general name Yehu kill the king of Israel, Yoram,and also the king of Judea that was with him at the same time, Achaziyau.
The Tel Dan inscription, Report that it was king of Aram that killed both of the kings:
Yehu also killed Izebel, The mother of king Yoram, Which were from Tyre and were considered a promoter of the worship of idols in Israel.
The killing of Izebel ,a Phonician princes,Severed the ties between Israel and Phoenicia and Judea as well, Since not only the king of Judea was killed, His wife, Atalia the daughter of Izebel and Achab, Took control over Judea.The weak position that Israel putted itself made it becoming a vessel state for Assira voluntarily, As it described in the black obelisk where king Yehu is depict as bowing to king of Assyria..
( scroll all the way down to relief caprtios).
In Judea, According to the Bible, Idol worshiper queen Atalia ruled from 842b.c to 836b.c, And after eliminating every remains of the house of David , Yehodaya the high kohen and the generals and the city leaders rebelled against her and crowned the only remain of the house of David, A boy name Yohash that they succeeded to hide and protect during the elimination period.
From the time to the end of the century, Judea and Israel were vessel states to Assur and Aram.
8:785b.c-733b.c Last prospers period.
At that time Judea and Israel had peace between the two sister’s states:
Uziyau king of Judea expend south to Eilat,And controlled again the edomin and even some Arab tribes.In the west over the philistines in Ashdod and east in trans Jordan over the Amonim.Many ruins in the Negev desert are a testimony of Judea power at that period.
During the same time, Yeravham the second, King of Israel, Expended norther in Aram and easter in trans Jordan, Where together with Judea they build new settlements.
:748b.c-722b.c the last sisters fight and the fall of the north.
A continues assassinations of kings in Israel leave the country shaky and loyal to Assur.
In 734 b.c, Pakach, King of Israel join forces with Aram and attack Judea. Though they can’t conquer Jerusalem, They kill 120,000 soldiers in one day, And enslaved 200,000 of the civilian population to slavery in Israel. Only after the prophet Oded complain about that, They are all realised and returned to Judea.
Assur intervene and conquer Aram and Israel ,And the Israelis from the Galil,Golan and Gilad are exiled,And king Hosha is appointed by the Assyrian.
But 9 years later, Another rebellion against Assur was conspired by Egypt and Israel and its capital, Shomron was captured and exiled. Shomron was captured both in 722 b.c by Shalmenaser the fifth and again in 705 b.c by Sargon II .Foreigners were settled in what was Israel before,They would later be called Samaretans, And they adopted a religion very similar to that of Israel.
Right after Israel, The Assyrian went on to conquer Judea, As it described in the Assyrian annals of Sanherib:
The Assyrians reappled rebellions in the area in 701, Especially in Phoenicia and the Plishtime cities.
Hezkiya king of Judea built the famous Shiloa tunnel
To supply water to Jerusalem and strengthen the walls with break from the houses,And also payed a heavy tribute to the Assyrian king to leave Judea alone but the Assyrians destroyed most of the fortified cities and destroyed the lands, Enslaved 200,000 of the civilians, But failed to capture Jerusalem. The ruins of the city Lachish in Judea can testifies of the horrible fate of the city by the hands of the Assyrians.
The Bible record that the Assyrian army was eliminated and 185,000 of its soldiers were slain by an angel, While Herodotus,The famous Greek historian from the 5 century b.c say that a plague fall on the soldiers and eat their weapons(book 2,chapter 141):
King Hezkiya is reported in the Bible to invite many of the remaining Israelis to celebrate the Paesach in the temple of Jerusalem,After 200 years of separation,And the people absorbed the former enemies as brothers.
10:698 b.c-586b.c:The last century of Judea and its fall.
Up until 639 b.c the kings of Judea served as vessels of the Assyrian empire.
The Bible though,depict the kings after Hezkiya,like Menashe an Amon,in the most negetive way.
After that king Josiah, in 627b.c stooped being a vessel of Assur together with the rest of the area , And expended over what was Israel before.Josia was a rightuos king and unlike the two kings befor Him he didnt tolerat any idol worship in Judea.
In 609 b.c king Josiah attacked the Egyptian army passing trough the coastal area on its way to fight the Babylonians led by king Necho II and dies.
Herodotus also report about that.Herodotus always referd to the Jews as Syrians.
The Egyptians lose to the Babylonians, But not before they crown a king of their taste in Judea: Yehoyakim, Instead of his brother , Yehoachaz, That was crowned by the people and was a pro-Babylonians.In 605 the Egyptians lost in the Karkemish battle to the Babylonians.In 604 the Babylonians invade the area and destroy Ashkelon,And that scared Judea very much and Judea subdued to Babel for 3 years.
In 600 b.c the king stop paying his tributes to Babel and in 598 the Babylonians sends their allies army(Aram,Muab,Amon)to destroy Judea and to plunder the temple.In 597 king Yehoyachin surrender Jerusalem and was exiled with 10,000 of Judea’s high society .
King Tsedakiya that was appointed by the Babylonians to rule occupied Judea,
In 594 b.c,the king met in Jerusalem other vessel kings about another rebellion,But the Babyonians soon repel the rebellion and seiged Jerusalem .An Egyptians relive force that came too late and too small to help Judea didn’t help at all.
The archaeological finding in Lachish and Azeka, Including the famous Lachish and Arad letter letters show the military preparation and the close relation with Egypt at that time.
In 586 Jerusalem fall, The king and his family,And other nobles were executed,And the city and the temple were burned down.The population were exiled to Babel.
The remains of the destruction are stile abundant today In archaeological excavations. Only the poor people were left to work in the vineyards, According to the Bible. The Jews commemorated the destruction of the temple in that day(the 9 of av)from that day and on by not drinking and eating for a day.
After the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, the area was governed for the Babylonians by Gedalia, a leader of the Jewish farmers that weren’t exiled to Babel, That was a pro-Babel leader before the destruction.He encourage Jews that fled from Judea to return to dwell in the Benjamin area.
Gedalia was assassinate by the king of the Amonim with the help of Ishmael ben netaniya, Which was a relative of the house of David and probably wish to replace Gedalia. Instead,The assassination of a leader that was appointed by Babilon,Put great fear in the hearts of the Jews and all of them ,According to the bible ,Fled to Egypt.This is why the Jews morn that day every year since then and don’t eat and drink.