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2011年3月5日土曜日

whats new?new data for march

the arab period

From 56 to 61 the Muslim empire is divided in horrible wars.Syria and Israel were controled by Muawiya I of the Umiyyads,while the rest of the empire was controled by the calif Ali.
toughe its known that the Jews in Babylonia,like the head of the Jews,Bosnatai,and the head of the yeshiva,rabbi Itshak of piruz,had close relation with that calif,it didnt seem to have a bad efect on the Jews in Israel.
680:the French traveler arculf visit Jerusalem and report about the many Jews that live in the city,and how the city is full of Jewish pilgrimers during the Sukot festival.
the Jews also used that as an opportunity for comerce,and they all gathered on the 7th day of sukut on the mounth of olives.
later the 9 century Arab chronical,Ibn daud, report that the rabbinc Jews used that oppurtunity to pronunce a ban on the Kariat Jews.
http://books.google.com/books?id=rbT7Vur2ZTwC&pg=PA120&dq=nachmanides+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=7t8gTLSIC4GgkQXAha0U&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nachmanides%20in%20jerusalem&f=false
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878:The land is conquered by the Tolonies(the governor of Egypt,After quailing a rebellion in Israel,Took control over Israel and Syria,And stop pay its taxes to the Abassid,The dynasty founder was called Tulon).The new Turkish rulers were favorites of the Jews according most of the reports.
however,
According to one source, a Sameretans source,the conqure of the area by Tulun was involved with plunder of  viliges on the way to Ramla and even rape of women.
after the conquest of Damascus Tulun returbed to Israel and confiscated work animals and crops,he also enslaved the man to work in varius works.after that he returned to Egypt and the governor was appointed to rule the area treadted the non Muslims harshly and oppresed the entier popilation.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=13300117&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#367.8885.3.none
page 352
another source that can support that is that before the Tulun occupation,the taxes from the center of Israel area,that was caled jund falastin by the Arabs,yeild an annual 800,000 dinars in land taxes,but in the year after Tulun took control over the area,the annual yeild from land tax was 4,300,000 dinars.
this show that even though the governore of the area before Tulun was known to harshly oppresing the population,Tulun oppresed the population even harsher.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=moshe+gil&hl=ja&ei=KgNyTb3OCIe4vgOI3_S9AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tulun&f=false
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1010:The Gaon of Israel rabbi Yeshaya report that the calif destroyed the Jewish synagogues in Jerusalem in Ramla.

From that and on ,the Muslim governors of Jerusalem oppresed the Jews in the city.in those cases the Jews asked for help from the Jewish comunity in Egypt,which was closer to the Fatamid capital,Cairo,but as was said before,the actual control of Jerusalem was in the Tay clan hands,so it didnt helped sometimes.
In one cases,the Muslims stop the suply of water to the Jews courter.the Jews sent messengers to Egypt but it didnt help.the Jews were forced to pay huge sums of money to the governor in order to get the water supply running.on the same time the governor brought an armed garison to be station in Jerusalem,and in order to pay for their staying,demanded from the Jews to pay the next year taxes,including the expensive pol tax.
the governor also ban Jews from the right to animal slaughter in the market,so the Jews couldnt eat meet at all.
the Jews asked the calif to helped them and he did send a leter to the governor but the governor simply wanted more bribe.the Jews had to empty all of the donations that were contributed to the poor,the widows and orphans.
this cycle of oppresions,then bribe and payment for canceling the oppresions and the again oppresions continued many times in Jerusalem.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA519&dq=%D7%90%D7%A8%D7%A5+%D7%99%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%90%D7%9C+%D7%90%D7%95%D7%98%D7%91%D7%99%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%94&hl=ja&ei=iTxoTY3yD4aKvgOeu5zkAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-preview-link&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQuwUwAQ#v=onepage&q=%D7%94%D7%97%D7%99%D7%92%D7%A8&f=false
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the crusade period

Maimonides writings,its seems that many Jews returned later to live in Acre from 1011,including many Jews from France and north Africa.
from a letter between Jews from Acre to Jews in Egypt it can be learn that some Jews were divers that gathered shels with pearls from the sea.
1210:rabbi Shmuel ben shimon vist in Israel,and joined the gead of the Jews in Babylonia,David ben zakai.he travel in the Galil and find 15 Jewish towns,that around 550 people live in each one of them.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#86.6173.2.none
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