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2010年9月28日火曜日

The Arab and turk period.(638-1099)

The Muslim Arab occupation(638-1099)

632-641
:the Arabs occupy Israel from the Byzantine empire.In 637 the Arabs conquered Jerusalem from the Christians,And  a famous Jew that had converted to Islam (kaab al ahbar)showed the Calif were the old temple was.The Calif himself came simply to maintain order,Since the Muslim army massacred the population.

http://web.archive.org/web/20060429163403/http://www.christianorigins.com/islamrefs.html#sophronius


According to Christian sources 4000 people,Including Jews were massacred near Gaza by the Arabs.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(PAGE 38)
its also seems that a great number of churches and synagogues were destroyed during the conquest.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=harun%20al%20rashid&f=false
page 160
The area(of the temple mount) was full of garbage Since the Christians ,In order to daily humiliate the Jews, Throw their garbage and sewer in that point for hundred's of years.The Calif Omar build a mosque there,Later he allowed Jews to return to live in Jerusalem, And 70 families from Tiberia moved in it,This after 500 years that Jews weren't allowed to enter or settled in Jerusalem,They were only allowed to enter the city in the temple destruction memorial day,To weep and morn on it.Many Jews that hurry up and return to live in Israel,Settled in Jerusalem and assign them self to clean the temple from the rubbish every day.
20 Jews were in charge of the cleaning of the El aksa mosque up until Muslims replaced them in 717.they were exampt from the pol tax.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(PAGE 71)

since the Jews werent allowed to build new synagogues,the synagogue in Jerusalem was an underground hall very close to the Western wall,the only remain of the Second Temple.
the Jews also prayed on the mount of olives.every year on the festival of sukot they gather there togheter with many pilgrims.the heaviest tax that the Jews of Jerusalem payed to the Muslims rulers was included the right to pilgrim to the Mount of olives,and even pray outlaud and sing,something that was usualy forbiden in  most of the time of the year.
according to Muslim and Kariat sources,after the 20 Jews  that were assinge on the cleaning of the el aqsa mosque,where the old temple used to be, were replaced by Muslims,the 20 Jews were incharge on the cleaning of the Omar mosque,even though it had already 300 servents.
the Jews cleaned the floors,the sacret pools,the glasses and the candels.its not clear until when did they continued to do so,but probably with the fall of the Umiya dynesty.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=89811685&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#154.164.2.none
PAGE 181

In 638 a big plague hit the entire area and many people died,Including some very important Muslims,including the governore.instead of him,Muawiya I become the governore of Syria and Israel.
he encourage Arab tribes to settel in Syria ans serve in his army,though some Arabs were seteled in the port cities in Israel,to prevent a possible Byzantine invasion.


Up until 641,The Muslims conquered Hevron and Cesaria,With the help of the Jews(according to Muslim sources only)And the occupation of the Muslims of the land, That the Jews preferred over the Christian,Was complete.
According to those sources,200,000 Jews lived in Cesaria when it was captured by the Muslims with the help of one Jew.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=sky&f=false
(PAGE 60)

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA106&dq=blood+libel+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=9zWOTJS3EYOUvAOywrHoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=haifa&f=false
(page 152)

From 56 to 61 the Muslim empire is divided in horrible wars.Syria and Israel were controled by Muawiya I of the Umiyyads,while the rest of the empire was controled by the calif Ali.
though its known that the Jews in Babylonia,like the head of the Jews,Bosnatai,and the head of the yeshiva,rabbi Itshak of piruz,had close relation with that calif,it didnt seem to have a bad efect on the Jews in Israel.

Generaly,in the eyes of the Muslim rulers,the leadership of the Jews in their empire was centered in Babylonia and was headed by the Rosh gola,or head of the diaspora,and the Jewish leadrship in Israel,that was centered in Tiberias and later shifted to Jerusalem and Ramla,was subordinate to it.however,not all the times the Muslim rulers,or calif controled both Israel and both Babylonia,and rebelions and wars putted Israel outside the control of the Rosh gola.from the Tulunid and fatamid period,in the end of the 9 century,the division between the emipres that controled the west,including Israel to the empires that controled the east,including Babylonia was ever more apparent and this allowed the leaders in Israel to be totaly independent from the Rosh gola in babylonia.
the leadrs of the Israeli yeshiva for more then 250 years were the Mar zutra family,that returned to Israel from Babilon in 520.
assuming that each of its members ruled for 25 years the order is this:
Mar zutra:520-525 or even more,he was only 18 when he was crownded as the gaon of Israel.
Guria:545-570
Zutra II:570-595
Yaakov:595-620,its not clear what was is position during the great revolt against the Byzants.
Shmaiya:620-645.during his time the Jewish revolt ended in a massacre of many Jews,and the Muslim occupation strated,and the Jews were allowed to return to dwell in Jerusalem,but its not clear what was his position.
Nina:645-670.during his time the Muslims battle each other and Babylon was contyroled by Ali while Israel and Syria was controled by Muawiya.so Nina was independent from the rosh gola until 661.
Migas:670-695
Misa:695-720.during his time there was the Saura movment that attracted many Jews and wished to rebel against the Muslim occupation but was queled without blood shed by the Babylonian sage Natrunai.which show babylon power over Israel at that time.
Nehemiya:720-745.in his time Ramla becom the capital of the province,and the Jews of Lod were forced to move to it.
Avdimi:745-770.in his time the umiya dynesty was dystroed by the abbasid dynesty in 750.on the same time,with the intruduction of paper in the empire,the babilonian talmud was sieled,and the babylonian sages,like the rosh gola and the gaons of the great yeshiva in babylon wished that all jews all over the world would accept it as the final word in the jewish social laws.this would be a source for great arguments with the jews in israel,that saw the jerusalem talmud as the final word.
Hatsov:770-795.in his time there was the Jewish revolt in the south of Israel.he his the last of the Mar zutra dynesty.after  him Pinhas and larer Josia and Jehoshafat were the gaons of Israel until 862.the last two gaons were related to the famouse rosh gola family of Bustanai,trough the founder of the Kariat movment,Anan ben david.

680:the French traveler arculf visit Jerusalem and report about the many Jews that live in the city,and how the city is full of Jewish pilgrimers during the Sukot festival.
the Jews also used that as an opportunity for comerce,and they all gathered on the 7th day of sukut on the mounth of olives.
later the 9 century Arab chronical,Ibn daud, report that the rabbinc Jews used that oppurtunity to pronunce a ban on the Kariat Jews.
http://books.google.com/books?id=rbT7Vur2ZTwC&pg=PA120&dq=nachmanides+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=7t8gTLSIC4GgkQXAha0U&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nachmanides%20in%20jerusalem&f=false
PAGE 72


692:The Muslim calif,Abd el malic,Finish the 4 years construction of the Muslim mosque on where the Israeli temple stud before,The doom of the rock.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 92)

Together with great migration of Arab tribes to Israel,Christian and Jewish tribes from Arabia had also came to Syria and to Israel as well.

THE 8 CENTURY
715:The Arab Calif build the city of Ramla, Which would be the capital of the province,Instead of Lidia.Many Jews move to live in it,And it would be a big Jewish city for the entire time.He also build the el aqsa mosque on where the Israeli temple once stud with blockes instead of the wooden made mosque.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 106)

717: The Calif Omar II enforce the Omar pact on the *people of the book*,Meaning Jews and Christians,The rules would be enforced by the Muslim occupiers up until the end of the Ottoman empire occupation(1917):


1:The Jaziya tax,Is an annual fee that Jews had to pay to the Muslims rulers,Regardless of their actual earnings,This will create a problem later,Especially during the Mamluk period(1260-1517)when the Jewish population will grow fast because of massive immigration, But their financial opportunities in the land that the Muslim ruler neglect would be very little.Nevertheless the Jewish communities in Europe started to donate money for the annul *ransom* of the Jews in Israel already at that time.
other taxes like ,the lands tax,the karaje were also very expensive,but its seem that the jews of jerusalem actualy had a beter arengment then other jews in other cities,becouse their tax was a fixed price to the entier community and not to every individual.
2: Building of new synagogues was  prohibited, Though its seem that in Jerusalem and Ramla new synagogues were builded any how(probably before the pact started).


3:the Jews were ordered to were a yellow tag on them,To identify them from the Muslims,And weren’t allowed to were close similar to those of the Arabs.



4: Carrying a sword and riding a horse was prohibited, This sanction made Jews very vornuable to attacks from nomad tribes,And they couldn’t protect their land.this was a continues of the vitual surender aggrement between the muslims to the non muslims,the surendering non muslims give up their weapon and hurses.


Though it didn’t mean that Jews didn’t fight,Beside from the first Crusade,When Jews were among the main defenders of Haifa and Jerusalem, Jews weren’t enrolled in the army,but they did participate in revolts in Israel against the same ruler that forbid them to carry a sword himself.


5: Their testimony in a trial against a Muslim wasn’t liable.

6:muslims could enter jewish synagogues freely,while jews werent allowed to enter moaques.
the selling of wine was prohibited.
they must respect muslims and clear the way for them on the road or a place to seat.
entering muslim houses was forbiden,but muslims could enter freely jewish houses and stay there up to 3 days,and the jew had to give them room and food.


720:A Jew name saura ben itshak(serenus) from Israel-Syria proclaimed himself as the Mechiach(the deliverer of the Jews)and promise to recapture the Holly land from the Muslims.

He attract many Jews ,Especially from far away Spain and France to come to live in Israel, Though he encourage them to abundant important rules of Judaism,Especially in the food and marriage rules.The Caif Yazid the second arrested him and executed him.

The remaining Jews that lost their leader, Ask forgiveness from the Jews.
Rabbi Natronai Gaonn accepted their return to Judaism , And each and each of the marriage was inspected to make sure that no Jewish law was broken.

http://books.google.com/books?id=MZ2MwNzB69IC&pg=PA324&dq=tabari+jews+palestine&hl=ja&ei=3EAnTPeaL8uLkAWz3_THCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFAQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=tabari%20jews%20palestine&f=false

(PAGE 336)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=672&f=false
(PAGE 145)

744:The Arab tribes rebelled against the calif Yazid III.One of the reason for that what the calif objection to the Arabs extortion of the Jews and Christians.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA841&dq=744+TIBERIAS&hl=ja&ei=UDSeTN_bOpCqvQOu49SCDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=TIBERIAS%20744&f=false
(page 86)

745:Another rebellion by the Arab tribes,led by the Arab governor of the area.the calif maruan II defeat the rebbells in a battle near tiberia,in which the Jews and Christians participate along side the calif in the fighting.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA841&dq=744+TIBERIAS&hl=ja&ei=UDSeTN_bOpCqvQOu49SCDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=TIBERIAS%20744&f=false
(page 87)

749:A big earthquake destroy the land.In Tiberia,The biggest Jewish city in the land,30 synagogues are destroyed. the destruction reached Jerusalem as well,And tens of thousand of people were killed.The Jews declared a fast to morn that day, for hundreds of years.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA175&dq=748+earthquake+in+tiberia&hl=ja&ei=ATonTJCIK9CHkQWLzNWcAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 89)



Despite the destruction of 30 synagogues,It seems that the Jews rebuilds the city fast,Since from 750 to 950 the process of the development of the Tiberias Hebrew vocalization will start.At the time ,Tiberia was called Medinat Maaziya,On the name of a famous Jerusalem family that moved there after the revolts against the Romans.

http://books.google.com/books?id=VDtY4S09efoC&pg=PA7&dq=hebrew+vocalisation+tiberia+9+century&hl=ja&ei=qDknTJfUMZaekQXKzpGFAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=672&f=false
(PAGE 149)

750:The time of the Hebrew poet Pinchas hakohen of Tiberias.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=MOSES%20OF%20GAZA&f=false
(page 178)

755:Rabbi Achai come from Babel to Israel,Live until 762.He was supposed to become the head of the Jewish community in Iraq, And there for the head of the Jewish community in the entire Muslim empire, But someone else was assigned to it.In Israel he wrote his famous book:Shelitot.A book that answer questions about various of subjects, With stories from the Bible and the Talmud.The book become later a source for information for far away communities in Europe,Like in Spain and Germany.

788: A smal Jewish revolt against the Abbasid calif is reported by Muslim sources only.
A Jewish worier name Yahya ben irmiya rebbel in south Trans jordan,That its seems that even at that later time,Smal Jewish communities still exited in Trans-jordan.
Its reported that despite him having two Muslim advisers,He was very anti-Muslim and his soldiers were probably Jews from the area.
The Muslims try to bribe him to convert to Islam,and after his refusal to that offer he battle the Muslim for two years until he fall in battle.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA171&dq=al+muqaddasi+jews&hl=ja&ei=-vDLTJn8NJGgvQODntgR&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=yahya%20b.irmiya&f=false
(PAGE 283)

796:Civil war between the Bedouin tribes become a rebellion a against the Abas dynasty,And many cities,Especially Judea's Beit guvrin and Ashkelon are destroyed and non Muslims are being attacked.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=796&f=false

(PAGE 156)

THE 9 CENTURY

800-811:Anan ben david,the founder of the Karaiat movement ,come to Jerusalem and start to convince people to join his movement.
Anan was appointed as the head of the Jews in Babel, Since he was the only heir of the former dynasty,The Bustanai family,That traced its roots back to king David,But very fast the main scholars and rabbis opposed him,Because he was opposing the teaching of the oral Torah,And the interpretation of the Geonim,Based of the Babilonian Talmud.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA175&dq=748+earthquake+in+tiberia&hl=ja&ei=ATonTJCIK9CHkQWLzNWcAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=anan%20&f=false
(PAGE 156)



In 770 he published his book, The book of the mitsvot,But failed to attract many followers.In Israel and in Egypt he had better luck.

800-842:The country is turned off with rebellions against the Abbas dynasty,That raised to power in 750,Instead of the Umiyads.

But during that time the Jewish yeshiva in Tiberias is blessed with many wise rabbis that focus in the Mesora project,the vocalisation of the Biblical Hebrew language,The Nikud..
for example:Riqat,and Semach ben abi Shayba that lived until the begining of the 9 century.
Abraham ben Riqat,Abraham ben Furat,Pinchas the head of yeshiva,Ahiyau hakohen,Habib ben pipin,Asher ben Nechemia,Moses muha,Moses of gaza and many more that lived in the 9 century in Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=MOSES%20OF%20GAZA&f=false
(page 179)



807:the calif harun al rashid order the destruction of all the non-muslim houses of prayers in the abassid empier.its possible that the intention was refering to houses of prayers that were builded after the aAab conquest,like in Jerusalem and Ramla.its not clear to what efect that order was carried out in occupied Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=harun%20al%20rashid&f=false
page 160
In 809,A Jewish, Arab,And Christian revolt occurred but it failed as well.
more rebelion soccured during the next 5 years,and cause greatb suffering to the samaretans,but also to the jews and christians.

814: a great hunger in occupied Israel,casued by locusts,bring to  a decline in the number of Muslims in the land.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA179&dq=MOSES+OF+GAZA&hl=ja&ei=LAMOTa3KL8jIccOM9ecK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=harun%20al%20rashid&f=false
page 295


 842:There was a big revolt that mainly Muslims participate in against the Abas dynasty,That failed too.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=RA1-PA160&dq=REVOLT+IN+PALESTINE+842&hl=ja&ei=fOqMTLSKE8nMcLjRpM0E&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=842&f=false
(PAGE 159)

850:The AbbasiD calif,Al mutawakil,Order the Jews and other non Muslims to wear different close then the Muslims,And in addition to other restrictions ,Confiscate 10 % of their houses all over the abbasid empire.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+dhimmi&hl=ja&ei=CDqjTNeNK42OvQPRnKn7Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=850&f=false
(PAGE 185)
the calif also repeated the order from 807 to destroy all the non-muslim houses of prayers in the empier.


863-893:rabbi Tsemach,that his family was related to the head of the Jews in Babilon,is the Gaon of Israel

In the Fatimid period, The Gaon of Israel was the leader of all of the Jews in the empire, In the Muslim rulers eyes,And every Jew had to obey him.
this is actualy a sign to low position that the califs in Bagdad puted the rosh gola,or head of the exile .

878:The land is conquered by the Tolonies(the governor of Egypt,After quailing a rebellion in Israel,Took control over Israel and Syria,And stop pay its taxes to the Abassid)The dynasty founder was called Tulon).The new Turkish rulers were favorites of the Jews according most of the reports.
however,
According to one source, a Sameretans source,the conqure of the area by Tulun was involved with plunder of  viliges on the way to Ramla and even rape of women.
after the conquest of Damascus Tulun returned to Israel and confiscated work animals and crops,he also enslaved the man to work in varius works.after that he returned to Egypt and the governor was appointed to rule the area treadted the non Muslims harshly and oppresed the entier population.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=13300117&sSelectedTab=tdBookInfo#367.8885.3.none
page 352
another source that can support that is that before the Tulun occupation,the taxes from the center of Israel area,that was caled jund falastin by the Arabs,yeild an annual 800,000 dinars in land taxes,but in the year after Tulun took control over the area,the annual yeild from land tax was 4,300,000 dinars.
this show that even though the governore of the area before Tulun was known to harshly oppresing the population,Tulun oppresed the population even harsher.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=moshe+gil&hl=ja&ei=KgNyTb3OCIe4vgOI3_S9AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tulun&f=false
PAGE 307

The Karaitas(Annans followers) main leader would be Daniel ben moshe elkomsi.  Elkomsi encourage Jews to return and to live in Jerusalem,So many Jews did return to live in Israel,Especially from north Africa and Italy.Another thing about the kariats,Is that they wrote more in Hebrew more then in Aramaic or Arabic.

893-910:The gaon of Israel is rabbi Aharon ben moshe

THE 10 CENTURY

905:The Tulunid dynasty come to an end and the Abbasid's returned.

906:the Qaramaits,a Muslim Shiha sec,invade Israel from the north and massacre many people in Tiberias,including Jews .

910-912:Rabbi Itshak is the gaon of Israel

915:Rabbi Saadia Gaon,Writes the first Hebrew dictionary.He also translated the Bible and Mishna to Arabic.He also wrote a praying book that collect all the prayers .
Sadia gaon wrote many other famous and important books.He also argued a lot with the Karaiat movements, That were spilt apart from formal Judaism.
He was born in Egypt, In the age 33 went to Tiberia to study more,So he could fight against the Kariast.
He was very appreciate by all the communities.

922:An argument between the Yeshiva in Israel to the big yeshiva in Babel about the calculation of the year and months,That is usually being decided by the Israeli Yeshiva caused the two communities to celebrate the Pesah Holiday on different days.This time,Sadia gaon was on the Babel side,While his opponent from Israel was rabbi Aaron ben Meir,In the end,The Israelis accepted the big Yeshiva of Babel opinion,Out of respect to rabbi Sadia Gaon.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=snippet&q=gaon%20jerusalem%20jews&f=false
(PAGE 218)

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=paltiel+hanagid&source=bl&ots=1aATDktqk6&sig=Q69sG8Pr655o-LWtNDwoAiBB81c&hl=ja&ei=8R8eTO3xKIOeceyUhPUM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 323)

926-933:Rabbi Avraham ben aharon is the gaon of Israel.

935: The Ikshadid(a Muslim black-Turkish dynesty from Africa) dynasty take control over the land up until 969,When they were replaced by the Fatimid's.

950:The Tiberia Hebrew vocalization scholars reach its peak.The Asher family,Was a Tiberian family that ever since the beginning of the 8 century  deal with scribes and the right pronunciation of the reading of the Hebrew in the Bible and the Talmud.

His opponent was Moshe ben naftali, also son of a famous Israeli family that deals with scribes.Later rabbis like the rambam will take asher as the right opinion.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4q1MHDoFVwkC&pg=PA124&dq=moshe+ben+naftali&hl=ja&ei=qXuCTKqgMIOevQO189ikBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=moshe%20ben%20naftali&f=false

960:Avraham succeed his father,Aharon ben meir as the Gaon of Jerusalem.

969:The country is being taken under the control of the Fatimids.The calif,Al muiz,Is very favored of the Jews,And he appointed an Italian Jew,(that planned the califs invasion to Egypt and Syria)name Paltiel the nagid(the representer)to rule Israel,He was also the leader of the Jews in the empire,Though,once again,The big Yeshiva in Babel were stile under the control of the Abasids.

971:The Qarmatis,A Muslim sect,Reblel against the Fatimids and invade Israel,And destroy Ramla,A city with a big Jewish poppulation.The Qarmatis leave  the area after a few months.Once again a heavey ransom of 300,000 dinars was imposed on the population of Ramla.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=ramla%20oppresion&f=false
(PAGE 339)


975:The Byzantine empire,Led by Tsimisces,Capture Israel and Syria for one year from the Muslims,It seem that most of the cities capitulate to the Christians armies and thus a great massacre was averted.The emperor died a year later,And the Fatimide returned.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=L_xxOM85bD8C&pg=PA443&dq=970+tzimisces&hl=ja&ei=TaScTKefDJO0vgOpmLicDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=970%20tzimisces&f=false
(page 443)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=yqk3XE196GsC&pg=PA528&dq=970+tzimisces+jews&hl=ja&ei=eaacTNqCFpCsvgOFmZmZDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 528)
976: Paltiel died,And his son Shmuel succeed him.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=PCalmtflYtEC&pg=PR10&lpg=PR10&dq=paltiel+hanagid&source=bl&ots=1aATDktqk6&sig=Q69sG8Pr655o-LWtNDwoAiBB81c&hl=ja&ei=8R8eTO3xKIOeceyUhPUM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 330)
But the Bizants dosnet conquer Jerusalem,though its seems that they planned to,and they also planned to expel the Jews form the city once they will and they contact some of the Arabs in the city about that,according to Jewish-Karai sources from that time,like salmon ben yeruham and yefet ben ali.

975-996:The period of the Fatimid calif,Al aziz,Was a very positive time for the Jews in Israel,Since the governor of Israel and Syria was a Jew,While the governor of Egypt was a Jew that converted to Islam,Yaakob ben khilis,And both of them protected the Jews so much that the Muslim historian El muqadasi was envies of them:*Everywhere Jews and Christians have the upper hand*
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=PALTIEL&f=false
(page 175)
However,the fatimid control on the land was very limited.from 969 to 1029 the 60 years war between the Fatamids to the Qaramist and their Turkish and Arab alies tear off the country apart.in 978 for exmaple ,the Qaramats conqured Ramla again,though soon later their leader died and they spread away.this was the time that the Tay Bedouins tribe that imigrated to Israel form Arabia at that time becom the dominant Arab tribe in occupied Israel.
The situation was that most of the Muslims in Israel hated the Fatamids and even prefered the Byzants over them, this explian why the Fatamids  were so execpetion in their favor towards the Jews in Israel.


From 990 to 996 ,The governor of Syria and Israel was a Jew name Menashe,Which was called El qazzaz by the Muslims.It seems that his protection of the Jews  upset the Muslims and they had him removed
http://books.google.com/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA200&dq=al+qazzaz+jew&hl=ja&ei=U4CoTJWIKI2gvgOGiK3pDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=al%20qazzaz%20jew&f=false
(PAGE 200)
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=snippet&q=adi&f=false
(PAGE 359)

998:The new Fatimid calif, Hakim,Suppress the non Muslims in the empire,Though his hate was mainly against Christians.He ruled until 1021.He also band the use of wine,Which the country was a great producer of.He also destroyed all of the churches and synagogues in Israel.There were also reports on forced conversion to Islam in exchange to violent death or confiscation of property.the synagogue in Ramla was converted into a mosque.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=a5QVgePlWz0C&pg=PA123&dq=el+hakim+fatimids&hl=ja&ei=LX6CTJ2_IZC2vQP_jozHBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jews&f=false

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%20yehuda%20&f=false
(page 177)



THE 11 CENTURY
1000:Around that time,The Bedouin tribe,The Tai,After years of invasion to the settled land,Took the actual control of the inner country,And his leader,The bani jarach,Were the actual rulers of the land.At that point,the fatimids gave them ramla to rule to appease them,But already in 1013 they will rebel and will rule the country.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA106&dq=blood+libel+in+jerusalem&hl=ja&ei=9zWOTJS3EYOUvAOywrHoBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBTgK#v=snippet&q=rape&f=false
(page 205)

The Bedouin didn’t respect any law,And they targeted and oppressed the non-Muslim and confiscated many lands.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=snippet&q=bedouin%201025&f=false
(PAGE 383)
The Jews of Jerusalem report on massacres, Rape of women and children, The destruction of houses and the burning of fields.
The Jewish communities of Jerusalem and Ramla become very small,
http://books.google.com/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA346&dq=JACOB+DE+HASS&hl=ja&ei=dPmMTKPkMcSWcci2wcwE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 180)
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=bFN2ismyhEYC&pg=PA342&dq=ibrahim+pasha+jews&hl=ja&ei=iRkmTM2jPIykcdvw8NgC&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=murder&f=false
(page 205)

1003::Ramla and Tiberia,cities with big Jewish populations suffers beating and tortures to pay huge sums of money
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q=RAMLA%20OPPRESION&f=false
(PAGE 372)
1010:The Gaon of Israel rabbi Yeshaya report that the calif destroyed the Jewish synagogues in Jerusalem in Ramla.

From that and on ,the Muslim governors of Jerusalem oppresed the Jews in the city.in those cases the Jews asked for help from the Jewish comunity in Egypt,which was closer to the Fatamid capital,Cairo,but as was said before,the actual control of Jerusalem was in the Tay clan hands,so it didnt helped sometimes.
In one cases,the Muslims stop the suply of water to the Jews courter.the Jews sent messengers to Egypt but it didnt help.the Jews were forced to pay huge sums of money to the governor in order to get the water supply running.on the same time the governor brought an armed garison to be station in Jerusalem,and in order to pay for their staying,demanded from the Jews to pay the next year taxes,including the expensive pol tax.
the governor also ban Jews from the right to animal slaughter in the market,so the Jews couldnt eat meat at all.
the Jews asked the calif to help them and he did send a leter to the governor but the governor simply wanted more bribe.the Jews had to empty all of the donations that were contributed to the poor,the widows and orphans.
this cycle of oppresions,then bribe and payment for canceling the oppresions and the again oppresions continued many times in Jerusalem.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA519&dq=%D7%90%D7%A8%D7%A5+%D7%99%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%90%D7%9C+%D7%90%D7%95%D7%98%D7%91%D7%99%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%94&hl=ja&ei=iTxoTY3yD4aKvgOeu5zkAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-preview-link&resnum=2&ved=0CDUQuwUwAQ#v=onepage&q=%D7%94%D7%97%D7%99%D7%92%D7%A8&f=false
PAGE 110

1025:Wars between the Muslims and Christians destroyed Jerusalem.Shlomo hakohen Gaon ben yosef,The leader of the Jews of Jerusalem described the poor situation of the Jews:After that war,We have nothing left,We are empty,Naked,Sad,Poor,Not even a clothing to cover our self.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=snippet&q=gaon%20jerusalem%20jews&f=false
(PAGE 601)
the same rabbi also report that the Jews of Jerusalem were charged with around 30,000 dinar special tax,in addition to the other tax that they pay as non-Muslim's(the pol tax and the land tax,and other taxes).the Jews were left penny less.they had to borrow money from their Arab neighbors and mortgage their property,and many were tortured until they could pay.
http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn:0521599849&hl=ja&cd=1#v=onepage&q=ramla%20jews&f=false
(PAGE 393)




1033:A strong earth quake hit Israel and many dies in Jerusalem and Ramla.The Gaon of Ramla,Solomon ben yehuda,Describe it in details:
 http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=jlwXYLFpOWIC&pg=PA375&dq=napoleon+in+palestine&hl=ja&ei=9mEwTNWDLNDQccHtmaUD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%20yehuda%20&f=false
(page 179)

1043:  A contervercy start in Jerusalem when a Certen Jew chalange the Gaon of Jerusalem, Shlomo ben yehuda.
The Jew was Nathan ben avraham,a Jerusalemit that was very succesfull in North Africa and was rabbi Hushiel's scholar and when he was welthy enough returned to Cairo where he was very active in favor of the Jewish  community and later  moved back to Jerusalem,and since he was from a family of Geonim he attract many folowers and he demanded to replaced the present Gaon with himself.
in order to avoid conflict he was appointed second to the Gaon,but the conflict continued and the two arguing sides send letters to varius Jewish comunites complaining  about each other and at one time they even phisicly beat each other.

With the Kariat community support Nathan was pronouce as the Gaon  and they even gather in the synagogue in Ramla,the Gaons son didnt want the local governore of Ramla to use the argument as a reason to close down the Jewish synagogue,moved to a differeent synagogue.

in the period of time that Nathan was the Gaon,the Jews and the Kariats Jews abandonad their usual mutual content to each other and celebrated Purim together and prayed and red the Ester scrol in the lights of many candels and all were very happy together.
but the mutual argument between the two contestors to the Gaon position was eventualy used as a reason for the local Arab ruler of Jerusalem to close down the Jews syngogue for 2 years.during that time Shlomo got the aproval of the fatimid autorities and Nathan had to give up .

4 years after the begining of the argumnnt,all of the Jews in Israel were gathered in Hoshana raba festival in the  mount of olives and celebrated the peace beween the two sides.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 128)

1051:The Gaon of Jerusalem,Shlomo ben yehuda die after 26 years in the important position.after him  Yosef the kohen ben Shlomo replced him,since Nathan ben avraham died before him.
but again a new contestor to the Gaon position rised to power.Daniel ben azaria was born in Bagdad and later moved to Cairo were he used his success in trade to contribute very gennerasly to the community,from 1045 he moved to Jerusalem in which again he devoted himself to contribute to the welfare of the community.Daniel was a descendet of the rosh hagola(leaders of the Jews in the exile since the time of the Babilonian exille in 586b.c) in Babilonia,meaning that he was a descended of king  David,and this gave him a great support:though this time the Kariats Jews supported Yosef and not him.for  a year there was no Gaon in Jerusalem until the authorities in Cairo declared of him as the Gaon.

In the  around 10 years of him as the Gaon he was a very proactive leader and in addition for him being a very wise scholar of the Torah,he was very profesional in logistic and this helped allot to the Jews in Jerusalem during those hard times.
Daniel the gaon had very good relations with the Jews in Spain and they contribute and doneted genarously to the community in Israel.
when Daniel was appointed as the Gaon the  leader of the Jews in Spain,the Nagid  Samuel wrote for him a blessing poem.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false

(page 131)



1060:The governor of Jerusalem is a Kariat Jew,Isthak ben Aharon.

http://books.google.com/books?id=M0wUKoMJeccC&pg=PA42&dq=Ijnadayn+Lajjun&ei=fBMnSbr2IJSmM4GIoaQH#v=onepage&q=Ijnadayn%20Lajjun&f=false
(PAGE 552)



1068 :Big earth quack destroyed Ramla,Many Jews died from the 25,000 dead.

1071:The Seljuks(A Mulsim turkish tribe) conquer Israel and Babel as well.The Jews fled from Jerusalem to Tyre with their leader,The Gaon Elijah.
http://books.google.com/books?id=88Gqv4IBk_gC&pg=PA86&dq=GAON+OF+JERUSALEM&hl=ja&ei=_3eXTKTYDsmvcJHlnaQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=GAON%20OF%20JERUSALEM&f=false
(page 86)
The Seljuks ruled mailnly on the inside of the land  while they couldnt counqure the coastle area which was ruler by the  Egyptian Fatamids.This was the reason why later during the first crusade time most of the Jews in Israel would be living in the coastle area and not in Jerusalem,Ramla,Hevron and Tiberias,unlike the rest of the Arab occupation period.

1078:The Muslims of Jerusalem rebel against the Seljuks rulers,the Seljuk respond by attcking the non-combat civilans as well,including the Jews and other non-Mulsims.
Rabbi Shlomo ben Yosef hakohen descirbe the cuting of hears and noses,and striping of captives,rape of man and women,imposed starvation and lutting.
http://www.kotar.co.il/KotarApp/Viewer.aspx?nBookID=90162539&ts=2010.11.20.21.16.21.420#31.7309.2.none
(PAGE 22)
1081:The Gaon Elijah declered his son Avitar(or evyatar)as his succesor and his other son,Shlomo as the av bet din(court master).
a year later the war in Israel setteled down a bit and all of the Jews in Israel gathered in Haifa and prayed on the mounth Carmel and wept for the exile of the yeshiva from Jerusalem.
the Gaon Elijah blessded the year and declered the agreed time of the hollydays of the opening year.
a year later in 1083 Elijah died and his son Avitar replaced him form Tyre.

How ever,very soon problems started again,the leader of the Jews in Egypt,David,the son of Danile ben azaria,which was only 4 years old when his father died,was proclaim the rosh gola and he merried a Kariat women,and very soon he saw himself as the succesor of Israeli Geonim,and even demand the right to decide the dates of the hollydays.
for 12 years he wrestle with Evitar ben Elijah until the foemer Nagid of Egypt,Mevurach ben azaria had him removed.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=fS-kagG1Ce8C&pg=PA176&dq=%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%99%D7%9D+%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%95%D7%A4%D7%94+%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9B%D7%99%D7%AA&hl=ja&ei=UcXOTKojj8Fxt8TRxQ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false
(PAGE 135)

1090:The Gaon of Ramla is rabbi Avitor ben eliyau hakohen.
He would be the last leader of the Jews in Israel before the Crusaderd period.
http://books.google.com/books?id=88Gqv4IBk_gC&pg=PA86&dq=GAON+OF+JERUSALEM&hl=ja&ei=_3eXTKTYDsmvcJHlnaQF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=ABIATHAR%20&f=false
(page 91)

1092:More then Tiberia,Haifa become the most poppulted with Jews in the Galil.Many of them where Jews that escaped the Seljuks and the Bedouins violence in central Israel.
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=uDj9sNezWzEC&pg=PA316&dq=haifa+jews+crusades&hl=ja&ei=g4bFTI-jJ4eivQOakaTECA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
(page 316)

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