The last Ottoman period(1769-1882)

1769:Dahar el omar support Egypt that declared its Independence from Ottoman control.

1770:Rabi Yom tov elgazi travel in Europe to collect donation to Israel.He will become the great rabbi of Jerusalem in 1782.


1771-1775:The Egyptian rebellion.The Egyptian ruler Ali bay fight against the Ottomans together with Omar,Using the Russian empire as their allay.But in 1774,After the war of Russia and Turkey is over and with death of Ali bay,Omar is left alone,And in 1775 he was murdered,And the Ottoman control was restored.The new governes would be Albanian families,Led by Achmad el Jazar,That his grand adviser and minister would be Haim prchi,A Jew from Damascus.


(page 130)
During that time in 1771,Ali bey besiege Jerusalem and the Jews were blamed for that and were forced to pay an expensive bribe.
(page 21)

1775:A blood libel in Hebron against its Jews.Blood libel is called  in Hebrew Alilat dam,Which mean blood conspiracy.During the 12-16 century the Jews in West Europe were blamed in the ritual murder of Christians boys.The false accusation was that they used the boy blood in order to make the Passover bread,The Matza.
This was out of total ignorance by the Christians to the Jews strict diet and extra carefulness to get rid of the blood of a animal before consumption,And in all cases confession were extracted by tourters,And without actual evidence.In some cases,Like in England,There weren't even a body.
Many Jews were either expelled,Forced to convert to Christianity,Or executed because of such accusation.Many Jewish communities in France and Germany were expeled to Poland because of such accusations during the 14 and 15 centuries.
In the 19 century,Blood libels occurred in East Europe,But with the conduction of proper and fair trail where the defenders can be heared,And convicting with  actual evidence is required,All accusation lost in court.
During that time the knowledge's about blood libels came to the middle east and up until today many Arabs in the middle east are convinced that it is true.

On the same year it seems that the Ottomans,That renew their control over Israel,Encourage Jews to re-settele in Israel,And even orginised it,Simply because they refered to it as a source of income.They would rent a few ships every year and charge the passengers for the travel.it seem that hundreds of Jews returned to Israel every year.
(page 30)

1776:The new goverenor of sidon is in charge over north Israel.Inorder to keep the security in the area from the Bedouim that moved to north Israel from north Syria in the 1740s,He gatther a big army of merceneries from Bosnia,Albania,North africa,And even Afganistan and pay them by heavey taxation and extortion of the population,Though,On the same time encouraging Jews to live in Acre and Haifa for example,So he could over taxed them and extort them.
(page 62)
1776:Ali bay's son,Muhamad ,Conquer Jaffa and massacre all of its Inhabitants,including Jews,And build a big pyramid from their skulls.


(PAGE 356)

1777:The followers of the Hasidut movement return to live in Israel.

The founder of the movemet was rabbi Baal shem tov(1698-1760)in east Europe.

400 scholars came,And because in Jerusalem they were refused entry by the Arabs,And in safed they faced hostility from the Hasidut- opposers,They settled in Tiberia.Their leader was rabbi Menachem mendel of vitsbek,Which was one of the founders of the movement in east Europe.from that point and on,Many more Hasidut followers,And many more Hasidut opposers would return to live in Israel.


1782:The Ottoman governors of Jerusalem decied to find an addition way to extort money from the Jews,Beside the already expensive taxes and tributs that many Jewish comunities all over the world would donate just to make sure that their brothers that guard Jerusalem would be safe.The Ottomas tax the Jews heavely for the right to be buried in the mount of olives.Jews had been buried there for thousands of years,Since it was a great privilag,And many Jews from the diaspora came to Jerusalem in their late years just to be buried in the mount of olivs.
The mount of olives is right next to mount moria,Which is the temple mount,Of which upon him the first and second temple stood,And today there are Muslim mosque instead of it.The Jews belived that in the end of times,After the Meshiach would come and defeat evil forever,The dead would return to live.Since the Meshiach is suppost to come from the mount of Olives,Jews belived that by being burried there will assur that they would return to live first.
The Jews first payed a heavy *bribe* to annul that decree,But shortly after the Arabs demanded a direct order from the sultan.it took the Jews  a few years until the got that decree annuled by the sultan,By then,Heavey taxes were imposed on every Jew that wished to be burried there.
(page 143)

1783:El jazar,the ruler of north Israel,Probably with he influence of his finacial adviser Haim parchi,Give some tax reduction to the Jews that come to re-build Safed after the 1759 earthquake and the 1771-1775 Dahar el omar rebelion,Though it seem that as soon as Napoelon invade Israel Jazar annul that attitude and extorted large sums of funds from the Jews in the north.
(page 19)

1790:The son of the great rabbi of Jerusalem ,Rabi yom tov elgazi,Yaakov,Is murdered by Arabs,Because of the huge debt that the Jewish community have.

(page 145)

1798:Rabbi nachman of braslev,The grandson the Baal shem tov and Nachman of horodonka,Visit In Israel.He claim that a Jew cant be a Jew without dweling in the land of Israel.Other famous word of him is the famous Jewish song:Very narrow bridge.


Rabbi Braslev claims that a Jew cant be realy a Jew unless he dwell in the land of Israel is not new at all,espcialy for famouse Europian Jewish rabbis.the most impotant Ashkenazi rabbi,rabbi Shlomo itshaki,or Rashi as he was called,which is alos the most important commentor of the Bible and the Talmud among all Jews regardless of their diaspora,claim many times in his comments on the Bible that while dwelling in the diaspora,in exile,there is no meaning for a Jew to observe the Mitsvot,or the rulles and traditions of Israel,or Judesam.the only legitimit reason for it is that is for the Jew to remember his fathers traditions so when he will return to live in Israel he wont have to learn it from zero,like its new for him.how ever Rashi couldnt encourage Jews to return to live in Israel becouse in that time the Crusaders occupied Israel and massacered many Jews there.

1798:The French empire,Led by Napoleon Bonapart,Invaded Egypt and from there reached Israel,In a mission to cut between Britan and India.

The French first conqured Gaza and Yaffo,And massacre many of the populats,Including Jews.the Jews of Gaza fled the city and never returned to it.
Fearing the same massacre would occure in Jerusalem,The great rabbi of Jerusalem,Rabbi Meyuchas,Allow the Jews to participate in the reinforcing the walls of Jerusalem even on Shabat.Napoleon doesn’t get to Jerusalem in the end.He go to attack Acre,Which is protected by Jazar and Parchi.The city walls are very strong,And the British navi help the city.Napoleon try to convice Haim prchi to shift to his side,Promising to reestablish the Jewish independent nation of Israel,But Parchi don’t belive him,Probably from fearing that if the word that a Jew helped Napoleon,The Arabs would massacre the Jews in Jerusalem.



(page 71,about the Turks plan to massacer the non-Muslims if napoleon would invade Jerusalem)

(page 164)
(page 118)
After the French finally break through the walls,They find another wall,And that break their moral,And Napoleon desert his army and return alone to France.

Soon after,The Jews in Safed are being attacked by the Arabs.
This acts of violence show that Napoleons pledge's to the Jews to take his side for the benefits of their nation was well heared by every single one in the land and it fueled their already existing hate towards the Jews,And this is probably the reason why Parchi denied Napolion's offer.

(PAGE 71)

napoleon said;
Jews!the only nation in the world that over thousand of years the tyrany and the lust to conquer of the nations had succeded in taking only your homeland and your independent existence away from you.
Wake up!wake up joyfully,you ,the exiled ones!a war that has never happened before in history is hapening now for self defence by a nation that its enemies had conspired to rub and divid among them its lands by the twist of a pen of ministers,this nation is now avanging its shame and the shame that other occupaied nations forsaken from the heart under the burden of slavery,including your 2000 years of shame that was impose on you:we offer you on the same time to restore the land of israel to your hands.
this young army that the divine had send  me to guide:that justice rule it and victory its his companion,made its center in jerusalem and will reach damascus in a few days.

The legal owners of the land of Israel!the great nation that dosent trade with people and nations,France of course,unlike the once that sold your fathers fathers to the rest of the nations,is calling you now to accept to your hands what was already conqured for you to be governord.
Wake up!prove that the powers of your former oppresors didnt reduced the spirit of the descendets of those heros,that their band of brothers could be an honor even to Rome and Sparta,and that the 2000 years of your oppresion didnt made you into slaves.

Hury up!here comes the moment that might not return in another 1000 years,to demand to return your legal civil rights among the nations that were not given to you for thousands of years,and demand for yourself a national existance as a nation among nations and your natural and unlimited right to worship God according to your belife in public and for ever.

This was publish on 20 of februar 1799.
the rumor about Napolion and a posible Jewish revolt were extragereted in occupaied Israel and the Jews suffered alot from that,for example:
newspapers  in france publish that Napoleon recruted Jews in Asia and they are now advancing toward Allepo,a complite lie.
The Ottomans heard about that and opresed the Jews in Jerusalem:because they heard that 12,000 Jews joined the French army that besiege Acre.Treats of massacres and rape were made on the Jews and they were forced to pay a bribe to annul that massacre and rape.the rabbis of Jerusalem sended messengers to Europe bagging for help and donations to save their lifes.
all the Jews were foreced to work in the constraction of the cities fortifications and Jews that got tired from the hard work were brutaly beaten.

1804:After Jazars death,His son Suliman,Succeed him,With he guidance of Haim parchi,That use his high position to help the Jews that return to live in Israel.


1806:Suliman stretch his control over Acre,Yaffo and Gaza,And from 1809 all of Sirya.But find resistatnce 
 in Nablus.

1807:Mahmud abu nabut is appointed by Suliman to govern Yaffo,That ruled until 1818.He build walls from stones taken from the ruins of Ashkelon and Cesaria.

1808:Rabbi Bajaio buy land in Hevron to build a synagogue.


1809:The arrival of many of the followers of the Hasidut main opposer,The Gaoln of vilna,Up until 1840 more then 5000 came to Israel.They were called Prushim.


The Prushim have a clear intention to restore the independent of the Israeli nation.They even train in weapons,And didnt’t let the Bedouin humiliate them,In one occasion,A Bedouin bandits kidnapped a grope of Jews near Yaffa and demand the Prushim to pay the ransom,The Proshim pretended to submite to them,And then attack the Bedouin and killed them,Realising the Jews.

(page 119)

1811:Rabbi Bajaio buy 800 acres in old Hevron.


1815:The rabbis of the Jews in Hebron are arrested and torched until they are ransomed thanks to gemneous donations from Jews in Western Europe.
(PAGE 71)

1816:After rabbi Tsoref pay the Arabs their old debt from 1700,The band on Ashkenazi Jews from living in Jerusalem is lifted and many Jews ,Especialy Proshim,Use the opportunity and move to Jeruaslem,And its very soon the Jews in Jerusalem become the majority,And the Perushim appointed Jewish guard on the walls,Settle agriculture farms,And they actually builded the base for the establishment of the Jewish independent in Israel.


1818:Yosef metelon,A Jew from Yaffo,Buy land and build a small hotel to house the Jewish pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem.This will be the base to the revival of the Jewish community of Yaffo,And later.Tel aviv.Very soon,A small communti\y of Jews is established in Yaffo.

1819:Haim parchi is being assassinat by the next governor of Acre,Sulimans son ,Abudala.

Abudala also attack the Jews of Safed and Tiberia,Claimming that all he time Parchi was in charge,He gave the Jews a discount in the Dhimi Jaziya tax,That the Oamr laws demand he Jews pay to the Muslim for their *protection*.He demendad an imposible prise to pay,And the Jews had to pay him with their land,Houses and even the close they had on.
(page 71)
This was the time that many old Jewish towns in the Galil were abounded by the Jews fearing the Arabs attacks.Many of those would become Arab towns,Like En zeitin and Meiron.

(page 146)


1820:Rabbi Yeshayau ajmon,Buy a hotel to house the Jews on their pilgrim to Jerusalem.Every month a rabbi from Jerusalem came to Yaffo to guide the Jews there,After 17 years,Yaffo appointed its own rabbi,The same rabbi that came to guide them for 17 years,Rabbi Yehuda margoza.

(page 36)

1821:The brothers of Haim parchi assembled a Turkish army and storm the Galil, Avenging their brother, Seiging Abudala in Acre,For 14 months they rule the Galil.After that their older brother was poisoned by a traitor,And the brothers return to Damascus.

(page 146)

1825:The Arabs is Jerusalem rebelled against Abudala,And failed.

1831:Jews from Lebanon participate in siege on the Sanur castle,As a part of the Druze forces from Lebanon,Sent to help Abuddla to fight the Syrian families that control Nablus.

1832:The Egyptian occupation.Ibrahim pasha conqured Israel and Syria in his fight against the Ottoman empire.They will rule until 1840.

While many Egyptian immigrated to Israel at that time,Soldiers,Slaves,And farmers.Ibrahim pasha,As the absolute ruler of the area,Treat the non Muslims with great respect,In order to gain recognition from the European empires,Especially Russia,But it didn’t help him much in the end.He allowed many European consular and post houses to be posted in the land,And the European countries residents could seek protection from the representative of that country in case of an attack from the Arabs or injustice from the Ottoman ruler,An important fact in future This will change the Jews rights in Israel for the better,Though its still leave them totally defenseless against the Arab oppression.

(page 20)

1834:The Arab rebellion against the Egyptians.The Arab villages around Nablus rebelled against the Egyptians and refusing conscript to the army,The rebellion and riot spread all Over the country,And violence and massacre and rape of Jews and Christian occurred in Jerusalem,Safed and Hevron.


(page 340)
(page 393)
(page 17)
Rabbi Issak ben solomon describe public rape of women and decapitation of man in Safed.
(page 119)
It seem that the survives fled naked to the Fields and waited fro 24 days until they could return.

In 3 months the Egyptian quail the rebellion,Exiling 10000 Arabs and executing many of the leaders,And confiscating their guns.

The Jews were expelled from Safed in June 1834,But in july they return with help of the Druze.
In  Hebron,A massacre of the Jews started after the Turks entered the city.
(page 17)

On the same time after the Egyptians allow Israel bek of Safed to settle with 15 families in an agriculture farm near Safed.They have some success but in 1841 they go bankrupt.But the idea of Jews rebuilding their nation by returning to work of the land, And buying lands in the holy land,And work in agriculture to be more connected to the land will live on.

1836:The Polish rabbi,Rabbi Kalisher,Advocate for rich Jews to buy lands in Israel,In order to restore the Jewish Independence in Israel.Many Jews are influence by that and return to live in Israel.This is consider to be the one of the first corner stones of modern Zionism.


1837: Big earth quick destroy Safed and Tiberia.2000 Jews dies.,Many of the surviving leave to Jerusalem and Yaffo.This make the living conditions inside the walls of Jerusalem to be very crowded,And this inspier Jews to seek life outside of the walls.


1838:The Druze and Arabs of Safed massacre and rob again the Jews in the Galil.An eye witness report about that:
(page 342)

1838: The first British consulat is founded in Jerusalem.The British consuls chose to protect the Jews in Israel and declaried that every Israeli,Reagrdless if he is a  British citizen or not deserve protection from the British government.
The reason that a Christian country,That its massacres of Jews during the Crusade period is well remembered chose to protect the Jews is indid surpriseing.Since every Europian power seek to influence as much a It can on parts of the decline Ottoaman empire,France was the protector of Catholics,While Russia was the protecture of the Greek orthodox,The British protected the Jews,And later the Russian and the Germans would offer their protection as well,This would be later in the 80s and 90s a very important factor that would aloud Jews to carry a weapon and ride a hourse and defend them self and their honor, Something that they couldnt have done for at list 700 years,
Jewish imigration to the land of Israel in the past,Failed to deliver their goals of renewal of the national independent of the Jewish poeple in its homeland Israel because of the abscent of thoise basic rights,The modern  Jewish imigartions to the land of Israel would be successful in acheaving their national independent goals becaus of those basic rights
(page 56)

1840:The French ambasdor in Damscus blame the Jews in a Blood ritual accusation.

A christian monk had had become missing,And the French ambasador blame the Jews for killing the monk and using his blood to make the Pesach bread,A false accusation that many Jews were executed for it with no justice in the 12-16 centuries in Europe.

The Arabs arrested many Jews,Including children,Some were forced to convert to Isalm,And some died in prison or from tourches,Until international pressure led to their relies ,With help of Ibrahim pasha himself and also the generouse English Jew,Sir Moses Montfury.But for the Arabs in the area,The idea that Jews drink blood become a fact ever since,a year later the same accusation occurred again in Hevron.


1841:The Arabs in Nablus decided to force all the Sameretans to Islam.The Samaretens turn to the Jews for help.Rabbi Gagin,The great rabbi of Jerusalem,Address the Arabs,And explained them that the Samaretans are a branch of the Israeli nation,And they were speared by the Arabs.Ever since then,The Sameretens are brothers with the Jews.



1842:Rabi Elkalai ,Publish his book,in which he advocate Jews to hurry up and return to live in Israel,Speak Hebrew,Collect the money of the Jews in the diaspora in banks,And buy lands in Israel with it,and cultivated the land with Jewish farmers.

The book influenced many Jews,Together with the same ideas from Kalisher and Bibas,To come to Israel.Many of them seteld in Yaffo.


On the same year the Ottoman return to control the land.And Israel beck move to Jerusalem and established a Hebrew print house there.

1845:James fin is the British ambasador to Jerusalem.With his favor to the Jews,He protect them form the Arab daily violence until his retire in 1862.



1849:Sir Moshe montfuri support the Jews of Israel,He generously help the many Jews that survived the earth quake in the Galil,And he help to repair the tomb of Rachel(the mother of the Efraim,Menashe,And Benyamin Israeli tribes) in Beit lechem.


On that year,The Arab brutaly expeled the Jews from Tiberia

(page 51)

1851:The leader of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem,Rabbi Tsuref,The rabbi that helped in 1816 to lift off the arab band from 1700,Was assasisnat by the Arabs.


On the same year, Fin,The British ambasador to Jerusalem,Buys a vineyard near Jerusalem,And employ Jews to work in it.They build a synagogue near it and called Kerem avraham.This would be the first jewish settellment outside of the walls of Jerusalem.Fin later sold the vineyard to the Jews before living to England in 1862.

Fins noticed that many of the Jews in Jerusalem are artisans,Some are very skilled smiths,glass makers,jewlery makers,carpenters,tailors ,dyers,But they couldnt find any employment since the Christians never bought from them and the Muslims simply didnt want to pay them for their services,And there for Fin wanted to give those poor Jews an opportunity to make a living
(page 65)
It seem that the rabbis of Jerusalem objected the employment of the poor Jews in  James fins planetation,Because they were afaraid that this was just another missionary project to  convert poor Jews in exchange for food,Since missionaris all over Israel worked very hard to convert Jews and Muslims to Christianity,And some times payde good money to intier Muslim viliges to convert.But because the condidtion of the Jews was so poor,And they simply starved to death,Even more Jews,Including rabbis and women came and ask to be employed,Just so they could feed their familes
(page 73)

1851:The small Jewish community in Hebron is oppressed by the Ottoman governor,A local arab from the area,And many of them fled to Jerusalem,Until finally the Ottomans remove him by force,After he revolted against them.
(page 33)
The Jews had to pay 5000 Piasters annualy in addition to the rest of the taxes and the pol tax,Just not be murdered by the Arabs.In 1852 the Arabs demdend more money,If not they will expel the Jews from the city
(page 51)

1854:James fin describe the poor condition of the Jews in Jeriusalem and their hunger becouse of the Otoman-Russian war in particaly and becosue of the Muslim oppesrrsion in generaly
(page 60)
1852:Rabbi Bibas settle in Hevron.Being inspiered by the 1825 Greek liberation from Ottoman control,He advocate Jews to do the same:To study physics and agriculture,To train in using weapon and to return to live in Israel.

1854:Rabbi David ben shimon return from morocco to Jerusalem.


1855:Sir Montfuri,With his mission to help the Jews to independently support them self,Build a wheat meal in Jerusalem,And buys a farm near Yaffo,but in the mean time lend it to German and American(non-Jews) Templers,That live there until they are massacred by the Arabs in 1858.


1856:The Ottoman empire canceled the Jaziya tax that non-Muslims are charged every year.This tax that Jews had to pay for 1300 years,And for most of the years was payed from generous donations of the righous and pius Jewish communities of Europe,Was a great step for the Jews from one hand,Though from the other hand the actual reason for Jews over sea to donat money to the Jews in Israel didn’t exist any more,And that a big motivation for the Jews in Israel to initiate new enterprise in industry and agriculture that would supply work to all the population in Israel.


1857:With the help of Montfury,The first Jewish neigberhood out side of the walls of Jerusalem was established,Mishkanot shaananim.


1860:The Russian empire build a big hospital outside of the walls of Jerusalem The existance of such a big building out side of the walls made it harder for Arab bandits to pray on people outside of the walls without being spoted by someone,And this made is safer for Jews to do what they couldnt have done for hondreds of years-to dwell outside of the walls.


The danger that expected Jews outside of the walls of the cities for houndred of years stile exist in the 19 century.:


(page 371)

On the same year two Jews from Jerusalem, Ashkenazi and Sapharadi,Yehishiua yalin and Shaul yehuda,Buy a farm near Jerusalem in the Arab vilage of Kaluniya,But after the Arabs attack them and mugg them They return to Jerusalem with out nothing.

1863:The Jews of Yaffo are led by Haim amzaleg.On the same time,Israel bek publish the first Hebrew newspaper.


(page 31)

1865:The second neighberhood outside the walls is builded;Machane Israel.

1867:Nachalt shivaa is established outside of the walls.

On the same year, The Ottoman officilay canceled the Omar laws,That forbid non-Muslim to build new houses and synagogues or repair old ones,And buy lands.But the law was permited to residents of the empire alone,While subject of foreign countries were still prohibited.The realty was that the Ottomans still put allot of hardship on Jews to buy lands and to build houses,For various reasons,Waiting until the other side will give up,Or simply pay a lot of bribe to get thing going.


(page 424)

On same year,German Christians settled in Haifa and Yaffo,The Templers.

1870:Mikve Israel,The first Jewish-Hebrew agriculture school is established, near Yaffo.

The head of the school was Karl neter,That belived that the only if Jews would become productive they could libereted their land,Without being needing donation from  Jews from the Diaspora.Many Jews studied in that school and use what they learned to cultivet the land,To dry the swamps,And make the desert bloom.

1871:Rabbi Akiva Yosef Shlazinger of Hungary,Come to Israel,And accepted by the Jews in great celebration.The rabbi was a great advocate for Jews to return to live in Israel,To rebuild the industry and agriculture of the land and to build a Jewish army.He predicted that once the Jews in Israel will numbered 600,000 the world nations would let the Jews to govern itself independently,Which mysteriusly,Is exactly what happened in 1948,When Israel declared its independenc.

It would be his scholars that will put in practice his teaching of cutting off the dependency in Diaspora donations,And to establish a dynamic,Productive society that is based on the Tora and the Hebrew language,Like the founders of Petach tikva in 1878.

1872:Jews from Nachalat shiva tries to buy lands near Yaffo,And the Ottomans Torpedo the deal.

1873:Beit david,Near the walls of Jerusalm is builded.

1874:Mea shearim near the walls is buildedd.

1878:Petach tikva is established.The first Jewish settelment out side the 4 holy cities(Jerusalem,Hevron,Tiberia,Safed)is established.

The followres of rabbi Shlezinger,Rabbi Solomn,David gutman,And Yehoshua shtamper bought the lands from an Egyptian vilage called Malabes,Which most of its residents either died from the Malaria(the entire coastle area was full of Malaria infested swamps)
or abandod it,And the owners lived in Yaffo.



After creating a new wail to the village,New fields were cultivated,And in the end of the year the Jews loaded the harvest crops and delivered it to Jerusalem,Practicing the old agriculture religious comends ,That couldnt be observed since the destruction of the second temple,1800 years before that.

The settellment will encourage the establishment of other Jewish settellments.Petach tikva,Being a non Muslim teritorty with no defending walls,Was vournable to Arab bandits attacks,Therefore the Jews establish their own guarding union.This guarding union will inspier later the establishment of the Shomer in the Galil,That will eventually will grow to the Hagana,And later the Israel defence force.

1882:The oppression and massacre of the Jews in Russia and Romania,led 25,000 young,Religious,Nationally motivated Jews to come to Israel.On the same time exactly Jews from Yemen decied that the time ad come and they march all the way in the desert to Jerusalem.The Etihopian Jews also tries to return to Israel,But fail.

The Jews used the help that rich Jews generously gave them,Like the baron Rotchild,And dired off the swamps with great effort,



 The estblishment of new settellments,Especially in Judea and the Galil,Like Rishon lezion,Zikron yakov,Hadera and Rosh pina, Would be the base for new waves of Jews returning back to their homeland and in 66 years revive their liberty.


The first Ottoman period(1517-1769)

The Ottoman occupation(1517-1917)

:The Ottoman empire conquered Israel,Syria,Egypt together with all of the Middle east,And encourage many of the Jews that were expelled in Spain to settle in Israel and in Jerusalem.


1517:The Small Jewish community in Hevron is destroyed in an Arab riot.
(page 24)

The Jewish community in Safed suffer from the Ottoman-Mamluk supporters battles and many are slain.Many of them fled naked to the nearby villages.

(page 97)

1517:Rabbi Yaakov berav from Spain,Move from Jerusalem to Safed.Until 1546 he will study from many of the important rabbis.He was a very bright rabbi,And already in the age of 18 was appointed a rabbi in Spain.

1518:Rabbi Moshe of Trani,Become the leader of the big Jewish community in Safed.,Many of then are Jews exiled from Spain.

1520:The Ottomans rebuild the walls of Jerusalem.this change the situation in Jerusalem,from a very vournable and un secured town during the Mamluk period,to a safe city to live.this encourage many Jews,and Muslim too,to settle in it.

1520:Rabbi Yehiel ashkenazi move back to Israel from Italy.he become the leaders of the Ashkenazi Jews in Jerusalem.
(PAGE 152)

1521:Rabbi Moshe basula visit in Israel.In his writing he report on the big Jewish city of Safed,And its strong wool and textile industry.,


1523:-Shlomo molko,A Jew in origin that his parents were forced to convert to Christianity in Spain,And he was burn a Christian,Return to Judaism,After meeting the mysteries David hareuveni,And fearing Christian persecution,He fled to the Ottoman empire and travel around in Israel,Promising Jews that the Geula(liberation) will come in 1540.
(PAGE 157)
(page 189)
Hareuveni was probably the first Jew after the middle ages that openly talked about the re-establishing of the Jewish state in Israel and the return of all the exiled Jews to their homeland Israel.
How ever,When he met rabbi Shollal in Jerusalem in 1523 the rabbi didnt belived Harehuvenis mystic stories about a far away Jewish kingdom of the tribe of Reuven,And send letters to communities all over the world warning them from David hareuveni
(page 24)
Though he was accepte  by the Pope at that time,In Germany,That was under the control of the Spanish emporer,Charles V,He was arrested and togehter with David hareuveni is executed by fire.

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=714&letter=M&search=shlomo molko

1524:Rabbi Yosef Caro,Write in Safed,His famous book,Shulchan aruch,The most important halacha book in the Israeli fate,That base its decision on comparison on every subject on three decrees:
Rabbi Maimon(1138-1205)rabbi Elfasi(1013-1103)and rabbi Asher(1259-1327).

Rabbi yosef caro was considered a high authority not just in Israel and the near east,But by Jews far away in France and Poland:

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=188&letter=C&search=yosef caro

(PAGE 227)

1535:Rabbi Shlomo alkabets,write in Safed,the famous Shabat song:Lecha dodi.
He lives up until 1584.


1536: Rabbi Yosef caro become the great rabbi of Safed.He will lead until 1575.
With his help,The Jews established a big fortres in Safed for the protection against the local Arabs.
(PAGE 60)

1538: Rabbi Berav of Safed ordinate new rabbis, To serve as an official religious leadership of the Jews in Israel,Just like the Sanhedrin were,In replace of the Nagid position.
This move anger many of the rabbis in Jerusalem, Especially rabbi Levi ben haviv.
Rabbi birab ordinate rabbi caro, Rabbi Trani, Rabbi Sagis, Rabbi Shalom,Rabbi
Kordovo, And rabbi Curiel.They will later ordinate their scholars as rabbis them self.

One of the main the aims of the rabbi Berab plan to renew the ordination of rabbis in Israel,The Beit din(the court),Beside the clear ambition to have an orginised leadership for the Jewish people in the holly land to replace the Nagid position,Was to take care of the problem of the Maranus.Many  many Jews in Spain and Portugal were expeled from it while many other were forced to accept Christianity just in order to stay a live,And once they had an oppurtunity to flee from Spanish control they escape and openly return to practice the father traditions.How ever,The acceptance of a different fate other then the Israeli fate was punishable with divine excommunication,That only lashes can erased that sin,But in order to deceid how many lashed each person have to get in order to be clean from his sin,Only a beit din(Jewish court)can decide on that,And this is why rabbi Berab wanted to renew the Jewish court
(page 29)
The argument between those who opposed the ordination to those who supported it continued without any side giving up,But *thanks* to much greater problems like the continues occupation and oppresion of the Jews and their poverty and over taxation that was imposed on them in Israel,Very soon the Jews had to put that  a side and work togehter

1538:rabbi Isaschar ben mordechai is the leader of the north african Jews in Safed.he moved back to Israel in the 30s,and moved from Jerusalen to Safed,in which he stayed until his death.
(page 152)

1539:The Ottomans finish the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem

during that year,the ottomans count the population in the land and a big growth in the Jewish population in Hebron and Gaza ,nablus and kfar kana.
(page 24)

1541:Rabbi Levi ben haviv,The leader of Jerusalem,Died.His major scholar,Rabbi Caster,Succeed him in leading the Jews in Jerusalem.shortly after that rabbi shlomo shirilio succeed him until 1558.
(page 30)

1548:The Ashkenazi rabbi of Jerusalem is kalamn kalonymus of Brisk.
From his name it can be learned that he was a descended of the famous kalonnymus family,That was invited by the Frankish kings to move from Italy to Germany,And was the base from which the Ashkenazi Jews grow(during the 9 century).
(page 126)

1542:Rabbi Moshe kordovo of Safed developed a new system in the Jewish mysticism,The Kabala.


1553:Rabbi David ben zimra returned to Jerusalem from Egypt.He was one of the most important rabbis in the near east,But the Arabs in Jerusalem harassed him until he left to Safed,Where he was welcomed with great respect by rabbi caro too and died later in 1573.
(page 30)

1555:Rabbi Israel najara is born in Safed.He will transfer famous Mediterranean songs into famous prayers and belief songs.

He lived in Safed,Gaza,And later in Syria until 1628:


1555:The famous Anacona boycott occurred.Don yosef nasi,A Portugalian Jew that was forced to convert to Christianity,Move to the Ottoman empire and use his power and wealth to stop the execution of Jews that were forcibly converted to Christianity,And after being caught observing Judaism,Were convicted with heresy.The rabbis of Safed,Through their colleges in Tesaloniki,Supported him.Especialy rabbi Caro.
The boycott of Anacona port failed and the Jews were executed by the Christians.


1556:The Ottoman  sultan is protecting the Jews in Israel from ilegal opression by the Muslims in Israel.
 He recive a compliant that Jews  in Jerusalem,Safed and Tiberias are being falsely charge with coursing of the Muslim fate and their children are being threatened to be forced to convert to Islam.The oppresors ,in order to extort money from the Jews ,both complian on the Jews and both serve as *witneses* to the Jews *disrespect*.The Jews are also forced to evacuet their houses for army units,and are being forced to work in forced labor ,including in the Jews holy days,lead them to exile or forced labor,and take away their food.The sultan was very angry to here that.
On another occasion the sultan hear that Jews that come to pilgrim in Jerusalem,Hevron,and nabi Samuel,are oppresed by the soldiers.
The officers charge the Jews exepensive and ilegal passing tax,beating the passengers and randomly arrest them for no reason.
The sultan send a letter to the governors of occupied Israel asking them to stop this.But as history shows,those sort of petty oppresion of the Jews in Israel were common up until the end of the 19 century.
page 219

1558-1564:The leader of the Jews in Jerusalem is rabbi David ben zimra,Though the actually authority Israel is in Safed,Where the majority of the Jewish population is.


1564:Don Yosef nasi and Dona Gratsia nasi,Recived the Ottomans permission to rebuild the city of Tiberia in north Israel,Which laid in its ruins after the Mamluk occupation.They settle Jews in it and planned to establish a Jewish autonomy in Tiberia.
The Jewish community of Cori,Italy for example,Sold all its belonging and marched to Tiberia,Thinking that the days of Jewish self governing in Israel had returned.

The command of Tiberia is handled by Yosef ben aderet that also build walls to city,And the Ottoman sultan payed him to build the city every day 6o Akce every day.

Though Jews do settle in the city,The political situation change after Don yosefs death,And the Ottomans attitude become less encourage.

The city would later be destroyed by Arab tribes wars in 1670.



1566:Rabbi Vidas teach Kabala in Hevron.

1566:Don Yosef is in charge of 12 islands near Greece.

1570:Don Yosef sign the trade contract between France to the Ottomans,The contract was in Hebrew.

1570:The Jewish population Safed grow and become as big as the Muslim community,Around 5000 Jews.

(PAGE 98)

1570:Rabbi Itshak loria ,Move to Safed from Egypt.


Born to Ashkenazi father and Sapharadi mother in from Jerusalem.In Egypt was involved in maintaining the trade and tax.He studied from the famous Jerusalem rabbi,Rabbi Besalel ashkenazi, And rabbi Coriel of Safed and developed a new technique in the Kabala,That would soon replaced the Kabala of rabbi Kordovo.

His dougther meried rabbi Yosef Caro's son
(page 26)

1570: A war between the Ottomans and the Venetian(the Lepanto war) put Don yosef position null,And his plan to establish a Jewish autonomy in Tiberia are dropped.

1570:The Arabs,led by abu supin, forbid Jews from entering the grave of the prophet Samuel(that ordains the first king of Israel,Saul).
The Jews use to celebrate the Shavuot festival every year there since the Crusaders time.
How ever it seem that Jews contiune to pilgrim to the grave a few years later after paying a tribute to the governor
(page 80)

1572:Rabbi Loria dies,But his major student,Rabbi Haim Vital publish and teach his Kabala teachings all over Israel and Egypt and Syria up until his death in 1620.

1575:After rabbi Caro died,The great rabbi of Safed is rabbi of Trani.


1576:The first print house in the Ottoman empier is established by Jews in Safed.The first book that was printed was in Hebrew, rabbi Yom Tov tsahalons book.


1576:A 1000 Jews from Safed are expelled to Cyprus.Later the Sultan himself canceled the order.

This episode show how for the Muslim lords of areas in the near east under the Ottoman occuopation saw the Jews as nothing more then a solid income source to the pocket of the local lord.
The Jews were not allowed to carry weapons so there was no fear that they would ever rebel no matter how they would be oppresed.
The Jews had to pay the Jiziya and Haraj taxes other wise any Muslim  could kill them without punishment.
The Jews in Israel were always saved by their brothers in other communities in far away lands,so the local Mulsim rulers knew that they could extort more and more money.the episode with Cyprus was that the ruler over there wanted to assure that he would enjoy a solid income source just from the heavy tax on the Jews regardless to the actual economic power of the area,and was very surprised that the sultan himself interveine.

1577:The Jews of Safed,The city the biggest Jewish population in Israel at that time,Are terrorised by the Ottoman govenor,Together with the local Arabs.He forced them to work on Shabat.They attack Jews and kill some of them,And then arrest many of them and flogged each one of them many times and demdend huge amounts of money from them.
(PAGE 298)

1579:The Ottoman sultan,Murad III,Order the excution of all the Jews in the empier.Only after the importent minister Solomon ashkenazi convice him to cancel the order the Jews are saved.
Murad III's mother was a Jewish women that was forced to accept Islam,And he had many Jewish advisers like Solomon ben yahish that helped the Otoman to form an alinace with Engalnd,So maybe only his addiction Opium could explain his infantil actions.
(page 338)
(page 104)

1580:After rabbi of Trani dies,Rabbi Gelanti become the great rabbi of Safed,until 1612.


1585:The leasold of Tiberia is given the Solomon ben yahish,Also a Jew that returned to Judesam after being baptised by force in Europe.His son jJcob administrait it for him with great sucess.

1585:Rabbi Haim vital escape from the harasments of the Ottoman governor Abu sipin and leave Jerusalem
(page 45)

1586:The Ottomans close down the Jewish synagogue in Jerusalem.It is the same synagogue that rabbi Nachman builded in 1267,And was destroyed by the Muslims in 1474,And a year later rebuild with autorozation of the Mamluk Sultan.
The Ottomans saw the rebuilding of a synagoug as a breach of the Omar laws.,From 715.


(page 278)
(page 25)
It seem that the confiscation of the Jewish syangogue  was very violent and many Jews fled the city,abu sipin ordered the confiscation,just like he did in the 1570S in the grave of samuel.

(page 505)
1588:Rabbi Besalel ashkenazi return to live in Jerusalem from Egypt and lived there until 1596.He was a student of rabbi Ben Zimra and a techer for rabbi Loria.He his famouse for his methos of studying the Talmud,As it caled the Mishbazot.He was addored by both the Ashkenazim and the Sepharadim,And even the Ottomans rercognize him as the sole spokeman for the Jewish community.
(page 33)

1589:Rabbi Shlomo Adani finish his full comentery of the Mishna,After 30 years of work.He retrun to Israel from Yemen in 1571 with his family,Which was famous in its wisdom in Hevron.


1593:Rabbi Moshe Alshich died.he was a student of rabbi Yosef karo,and the teacher of rabbi Haim vital. came back to Israel in 1535 and was a very skilled preacher in Safed.he is the one that established the Meir baal hannes donation fund,to promot donation from Jews all over the world to the Jews in Israel.
(page 56)
1599:The situation of the Jews in Jerusalem is bad.Many died out of hunger.600 of 700 Jewish widowers in Jerusalem died.
(PAGE 338)

1599:The old Jewish towns near Safed,Like Ein zitim,Biria and Meiron are abandoned by their Jewish inhabitants because of the Arab violence.
(PAGE 28)


:From letters between rabbi Gedaliah cordevero(son of moshe cordevero) and Itshak de trani(son of moshe de trani) we can learn that a Jewish community still exist in Eglon,In trans jordan
(PAGE 36)
And also in Jenin,In the north Samaria
(PAGE 33)

 1600:Rabbi Avraham Azulai return from Morocco to Hevron.He will also live in Gaza and Jerusalem and teach the Lorian Kabala until 1634.


1603:The Ottomans appointed an Arab family to govern Jerusalem,The Fruk.They oppress the Jews very harshly.

1610:The country is being under the control of the governor of Lebanon,Fachar a din until 1633.

1621:The ruler of Jerusalem is Muhamad ben faruk.He increas his oppression of the Jews.

1622:The famous rabbi of Poland,Rabbi Yeshayau Halevi Horovits,Return to Jerusalem and his welcomed by the Jews with great celebration.
Horovits served and judge in many Jewish communities in Eeast Europe,Like Pragua and Lublin.His famous book,The two tables of the covenanat,Is a very important book in the Israeli fate,And it also preised the and encourage Jews to return from the exile to their fatherland
(PAGE 52)

1623:The ruler of Lebanon,Is attacked by an Arab coalition of the Gaza governer,The Raduan clan,The Jerusalem governer,The faruk clan,And the Lajun governor,The Tarabay clan,And is defeated in the battle of Yazur near Yaffo.


1625:The oppression of the Jews in Jerusalem reach to a peak when the hedonist governer of Jerusalem,Muhamad ben faruk,Arrest the main rabbis of Jerusalem,Including rabbi Horovis,For ransom and tourcher them.

The Jews find them self helpless and the governer of Damascus,That suppopse to be incharge over Jerusalem as well dont help them.They are forced to borrow a lot of money from the Arabs and Christians with big interest in order to free the rabbis from prison.The governor rule until 1638,But the news on the injustice dosent left unknown to the Ottomans,And in 1657,They replace all the local Arab governors with Syrian families that will rule from Gaza.

(page 88)
(PAGE 342)
1:Fisrt,faruk overthrown the mayor of Jerusalem in 1625,With 300 merceneris.He oppressed and arreseted every one he wished to just in order to have their money and property.The kadi fled from the city,And the new kadi was delied.In one month he extort 3000 grush from the Jews.

2:Later,Faruks brother in law,Aga,Demanded imidiatly 5000 grush from the Jews,After many begging he *agrreed* to give them one night.But the Jews simply couldnt get that kind of money,He agrred to get half of it imidiatly,And pressur them harshly to pay the rest.

3:A month later,The new kadi came to Jerusalem,And Faruk bribed him and show him a fake order from the sultan that order the expel of most of the Jews from the city,The Jews panickly payed huge sums of money to Faruk and tot he kadi and other officials to overlook that order.

4:A month later Aga called for one of the rabbis to come to him.The rabbi's son came instead of him together with another elder rabbi.Both of them were publicly flogged almsot to death,And only after 2000 grush were promised to Aga he stopped.

5:On the summer of 1625,The governor of the province from Damascus called Faruk to come with Aga to see him,And Faruk lelt another brother in law of him, Called Ottoaman to be in charge.He also demanded a 1000 grush from the Jewish leader rabbi Shimon cohen,Later agreed to only 500 .

6:In the end of the summer,The Jews felt safe enough to go out and pray in the synagogue in shabat,But they were soon attacked by Ottoman's soldiers and 15 of their main rabbis were arrested.The Jews had to find a way to ransom their precies rabbis,And they  had to borow money from their Arab nighbors,Who only agrred to lend them moey,If the Jews would agreed to pay 50 % intrest rate.
In two weeks 9 were relises,And until september all were relised.In sum,20,000g rush were payed to Ottoman,
The governor of Damascus send a captain to see what Ottoman his doing, That captain demand that the Jews would be relised and their money to be returned,But Ottoman scared the captain away and later bribed him not to tell anything bad about him to the governor,The Jews had to sell their sphare close in order to pay the money need to relise the last 6 rabbis.

7:The compliants about Farouk become aware to the Ottoman authoroties and he was arrested,But when escaped from jail,He returned to Jerusalem,Got rid of his brothers in law,And start again to arrestes and flogged Jews.He arrest the two of the high rabbis,Rabbi Yaakob ben avraham and rabbi Itshak gaon and flogged them in public.How ever the Jews simply didnt have anything to give Farouk for ransom,Beside kitchen pots.

8:After that,the governor of Damascus treattend to attack Farouk if he wont leave the city,And he fled the city in december.The Jews in the city remain in a debt of 50,000 grush to the Arabs,paying an extra 10,000 every year on intrest.

1630:The Jews is Jerusalem are faced with an almost massacre by the Arabs.A rumor that Jews killed a Muslim boy in Egypt angried the Arabs and they start beating every Jew they come across with,But the kadi convice them to wait until the issue is invetigated and then they could *legaly* massacre the Jews.The kadi of course extort 5000 grush rom the Jews for his *mercy* and in the investigation it turns out that not only that the boy is alive and not dead,But he is a Jewish boy that was kidnaped by the Muslims and was forced to accept Islam.He ran away from his adopting Muslim family to Egypt,And from there the evil rumor started.Once this is cleared and the boy come to Jerusalem,the kadi anult the decree to kill all the Jews,And the Jews celebrat a very happy Passover
(PAGE 94)

1640:The city of Tiberia is destroyed and its Jews are scatetred.
(page 14)
(page 148)

1642:Rabbi Yaakov tsemach come from Damascus to live in Jerusalem.In Damascus he was on the few scholars that were chosen by rabbi Haim vitals's son to study the teaching of the Kabala,As vital accepted it from rabbi Loria.How ever,In Jerusalem,He discover a hidden treasure,Thousend of paper wok writen  by rabbi Vital,That were unknown to Vitals son.By arrenging the pages that were in diaray,He promised that the secret and valuabale knowledg could be brought to future generations
(PAGE 66)

1643: Rabbi Avraham Azulai died.he moved back to Israel in 1600 from Moroco,And lived in Hevron,untlil a plague in 1619 forced him to move to Jerusalem,another plague there forced him to move to Gaza,where he wrote his book chesed lehavraham.he was a famose kabalist that studied from rabbi Haim vital and his son and also with rabbi Yaakov tsemach.he lived a long time in Hebron until his death.
He was the grandfather of rabbi Haim yosef azulai,the famos kabalist and messenger that colected donations in Europe for the poor Jews of Jerusalem.
(page 73)

1658:Rabbi Israel Yaakov hagiz, Return from Moroko to Jerusalem,And together with rabbi Gelanti II they establish the big Beit Yaakov Yeshiva . They will later would object and fight against the Shabtati movemnet.
(PAGE 75)
Hagiz arange the establishment of the Beit yaakov yeshiva,In which many important sholars would learn.He arranged that a generous family from Livorno ,the vega family would support the yeshiva
(PAGE 25)

1660:The rulers of Gaza fight against the rulers of lebanon,And destroy Tiberia.the Jews of Tiberia move to Safed and other places,Though Safed itself was destroyed  too by the Arabs on the same time, And its Jews were massacred.
It seem that right after that many Jews returned to Safed,Including many polish Jews that fled the Hemlinistki grand massacre.


(page 345)
(page 49)

1660:Its seem that during that time ,Gaza was the biggest Jewish city in the land,Just lIke it was in most of the Mamluk period
(PAGE 73)

1665:The Shabtai movement case.A Jew name Shabtai tsvi(1626-1674)proclaim himself as the Meshiac(the deliverer of Jews,A decedent of king David)for that reason is being excommunicate by the Jews of Greece and Turkey,Though he is being very appreciate by the Egyptian Jews, And send to deliver donations to the Jews of Israel.He is being met by a famous Kabala master in Gaza,Rabbi Natan of Gaza,That acknowlegd him as the Meshiach.

Though the Jews and the rabbis of Jerusalem object him and deny his claims,The Jews of Safed and Syria accept him with great excitement. The entier Jewish world,Read the letter sent to them by rabbi Natan,And they belive that the Meshiach has come.
zvi was so charizmatic that he even charmed the kadi of jerusalem (the kadi in jerusalem allways looked for away to hummiliat the jews)

After his supporters and opossesr wrestle in Turkey,He is was arrested by the Sultan.In his jail,He was visited by a rabbi from Poland,Rabbi Nechamia kohen,A Kabala specialist,That argued with him 3 days,And expose him to be a liar.

Fearing to be assasinat by Shabatis supporter,Kohen convert to Islam,And then blaim Shabati for planing a rebellion against the Sultan .The Sultan in his anger,Gives Shabati two options,To be executed or to convert to Islam.Shabati convert to Islam,And most of followres soon abondoned him,And return to seek forgivneSs for thier sins.

Only a few of his many many followers remain loyallowers remain loyal to him after his death in 1676,And most of them converted to Islam or Christianity.While the majority of Jews start to look at the Kabala with a more caution ,And limited the study of the Kabala to only over 40 years old people,One of the ideas from the Shbatai movement,Did become accepted and would be put into practice in later years,The idea that the return of the Jews to live independently in their homeland Israel,Will make the Geula(the apocalyptic fight victory of good over evil)closer.This will be continue in the Hasidut and Zionist movement.

(PAGE 345)
(PAGE 234)

1674:Rabbi Gelante II, Lead the Jews of Jerusalem until 1689.After him,Hizkiya de silva will succed him
(PAGE 79)
He replaced rabbi Chagis after his death,And he took care if his son,Moshe Chagiz.
Gelantei was famouse for his leading of the memorial for the prophet Samuel every summer in the grave of samule north to Jerusalem.This annual event was one of the most important Jewish event in Israel,Egypt and Syria
(PAGE 80)
1689:Rabbi Moshe haviv succeed rabbi Gelanti in leading the Jews of Jerusalem,Since Hizkiya de silva,Gelanti's main scholar was sent to a long mission in Europe to raise donation to the Jewish communities in Israel.
(page 85)

1698: An epidemic kill many of inhabitants in the land,In Jerusalem,36 rabbis died
(PAGE 87)

1700:More then 1000 Jews from Poland return to live in Jerusalem,Led by their rabbi,Rabbi Yehuda,Beliving that the Jews return to dwell freely in the land of Israel will bring the Geula faster.Their messenger buy land for them in Jerusalem to house them,With money that the Jewish communities in Poland donated,But since building new houses was forbidden to Jews,A lot of money was loaned to the Jews from the Arab in order to get the approval of the authorities.

But a few days after the arrival to Jerusalem,The old rabbi dies from the hard and long travel.The grope that was left leaderless,And being suspected as followers of the Shabatai movement,Recive almost no help from the Jews in jerusalem,Spread around some mix with the Jews in Jerusalem,Hevrom,Gaza and Safed,And left the debt matter undone,The Arabs of Jerusalem in their anger,Decreated that no Ashkernazi Jew would be allowed to dwell in Jerusalem ever since.The band would only be lifted in 1816,After the Tsoref family payed the debt.


1703:Arab rebellion in jerusalem,Led by El ashraf, Jerusalem was 2 years under the local Arabs control.

1708:The Muslim kadi uses his power to humiliate the Jews in Jerusalem.He forced Jews to were a very tal turban,And forbid them from crossing an Arab from his right side..(this one would be obseredved by the arabs up until the end of the ottoman period,if a jew sowuld pass near them they will yell:pass me on my left you dog!)
This situation reach a peak when he forced the Jews to burry all the dogs that the Arab killed after a dog was rumored to enter the El aqsa mosque in the temple Mount.
(PAGE 148)

The kadi also arrested the  head of the Jews,The Rishon lezion,But luckily,During an Arab riot in the city the leader was realised by force and the kadi escaped the city.
All the cheif rabbis Sepharadi rabbis of Jerusalem since the time of Moshe gelantei II(1665) were called Rishon lezion,Which mean the head of the holly land(Zion).
1713:Rabbi Moshe Hagiz,Continue his fight against the Shabtai movement.He travel to Amsterdam to collect donations to Israel,And join the Ashkenazi rabbi Tsvi hirsh,In order to convince the Sapharadi community in Amsterdam to excommunicate the Shabtai scholar,Rabi Nechamiya chayun(also from Jerusalem).


However Hagis fight against the Shabatout movement,Especilay in Amsterdam,That its Jewish community becom the main supporter of the Jews in Jerusalem with the help of rabbi Hizqiya de silva,In 1690,Instead of the Vega family from livorno,That stopped its support in 1685,Couse great finanicial problmes to Jerusalem
(page 36)

1720:The Arabs burned down the synagogue builded by rabbi Yehuda They make it garbage dump and the houses near become Arab shops.They arrested many of the Ashkenazim and eventually decided that all of the Ashkenazim are baned from the city.

(PAGE 119)

1722:The pasha of Jerusalem,Yusuf, Oppress the Jews and arrest their important rabbis for ransom.The Jews are demanded to pay a huge amount of money for the ransom in 3 months.The young rabbi Meyuchas,Grandson of rabbi Meyuchas ,The great rabbi of Jerusalem that was arrested as well, Was sent to collect the donations from Jews in Turkey,Suuceed in convincing the Jews to help their brothers,In on his way back he is myracusly saved from Arab bandits that tried to mug him from his huge treasure.
(PAGE 123)

1730:All the Jewish women in Jerusalem which are involved with selling wine were arrested after two Arab women get drunk and one stab the other to death.After paying a very expensive ransom the women are freed.
(page 124)
(PAGE 141)

1733:The pasha of Damascus visit Jerusalem and expel all the Jews living near the western wall,After He spotted a few Jewish women looking at his direction.
(page 124)

1738:Rabbi Moshe haggis join rabbi Tsvi hirshs son,Rabbi Yaakobv Amdan,To battle the Shabai movement scholers,Rabbi Yonatan aivshits and rabbi Moshe lutasto.

(PAGE 78)

1739:Rabbi Nachman of hordna,One of the leader of the Hasidut movement in east Europe, Move to live in Safed and later Tiberia with a big grope of followers..

Rabi Nachman was one of the followers of the Baal shenm tove,And the grandfather of the famous rabbi,Nachman of braslev.

1740:Rabbi Haim abulafiya rebuild the city of Tiberia.The governor of the Galil and Lebanon,Dahar el omar,Is very kind to the Jews,And he invite rabbi Abulafia to rebuild the city,Since its rabbi abulafiyas grandfather that was the last rabbi of Tiberia.He build a big Yeshiva and settele many Jews there,A big market and public bath.

The city become very big until 1744,And rabbi Abulfiyas son succeed him after his death in leading the Jews in it.

Rabbi Yakov birab II,A descendet of the famose rabbi Birab of the 16 century,come from turkey with a big grope of Jews to settle in tiberia.
(PAGE 65)

How ever.while the jews tiberia preised omar,the jews in safed sufferd from him.just like every other muslim ruler,he also wantd jews under his control,simply becuase hey were defencless(they werent allowed to carry bany weapon)and could easyly be extorted by simply arresting one one of them,and they would panickly send messengers to europe to collect funds for ransom from europian generous jews,and it was a very easy income for arab rulers.
high taxeds were imposed in them for the army of omar,and omar also demendad a very expensive present from all the non-mulsims every time he merried,and he meried every year.
many jews had to flee and hide on the hills
(page 17)
1741:The local Arabs in Jerusalem try to expel the Jews from Jerusalem because  of he increase of Jews returning from exile,And they even refused to sell food to the Jews.
Only after paying a huge bribe the Jews were saved for now.
(page 21)

1742:The governor of Damascus battle with Dahar el omar,And seige Tiberia for 83 days.

After which the Damascus ruler,That is officaly in charge over all over Israel,Died,End the actual ruler of the Galil and Lebanon was Omar.Omar start to rebuild the port cities of Haifa and Acre,And setteled many Jews there.

(PAGE 16)

1743:Rabbi Mosh luzato move to Acre,Where he also builded a synagogue under the approval of Dahar el omar. though being a scholar of the Shbatai movement,And die  3 years later, he influented the Hasidut and later Zionist movement deeply,Because he wrote both on religous subjects,Like a variety of subjects in the Kabala , And both on seculer subjects,Like Love and Nature.


(PAGE 36)

1743;Rabi Haim ben atar return from Morocco to Acre.He will later dwell in Pekiin and Tiberia.His main student was Rabi Yosef azulai.

Ben Atar was a very adored Kabala master,And even the Baal shem tov in far away east europe admired him.

(page 157)

In his time ,A meting between the Jews and the Kariats about the high taxes imposed on the Jews,Is used by the Kariats to humiliate the Jews and to couse abbi Atar to fall and to faint.When he wakes up he curse the Kariats,A curse that belived to be effect at list until 1853.

(page 130)

Atar was a very famose rabbi in Jerusalem,And his Yeshiva was so prestiged that it attract scholars from all over the world.He also had a second Yeshiva,In which he and his best students would study Kabala,

1744:the Jewish synagogue in Yafo is being confiscated by the Arabs.


1744:The Jews of Hebron are persucuted by the Arab rulers and the local Christians,The community face explusion from the city for its debts,Since it cant pay the many taxes and tribust that the local governors and the local bandits impossed on them.
The communty look for help from overseas Jews after the community is being beaten and flogged.
(page 23)

1745-1748:The Jewish community of Jerusalem is extorted by the Ottomans.The cheif rabbi ,Nissin mizrahi and other prominent members are often arrested and totured for exopensive ransom,That the Jews have to beg from  Jewish coomunities in Europe while their rabbis are being tortured until the full ransom come to the hands of their Muslims oppressors

(page 123)

1747:Rabbi Abraham geroshon of kitov,The brother in law of he Baal shem tov(the founder of the hasidut movement)return to live in Israel.
He came with his family,And setteled in Hebron,Where he was well accepted and loved by the small comunity of the Sepharadim Jews.
In 1753 he moved to live in Jerusalem,and joined the small Ashkenazi community there that lived together with the Sepharadim without the Mulsims even notincing,Since he Muslim bands the Ashkenazim from living in Jeruslaem ever since the days of rabbi Yehuda hachasid in 1720.
He would live duntil 1761 and would be one of the sages of the Beit el yeshiva,Which was famouse for its kabala rabbis like rabbi Sharabi.
(page 64)

1755:Rabbi Yosef azulai from Jerusalm travel in Europe to collect money to the Jews of Israel.He was a mix between Moroco Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.

After his death his main student ,Rabbi Shalom sharavi of Yemen would succeed him in the great Yeshiva of Jerusalem,The Beit el Kabala Yeshiba.


Sharhabi was involved in a mysterious incident with the Arabs that always harassed Jews that were praying in the western wall,In which afterward the Arabs promised to stop their harassment of the Jews.
(page 157)

1758:The Arabs confiscate the Jewish synagogue that Rabbi Lazato had builded.

1759:A big earth quake destory the north of Israel
(page 353)
Many Jews died in that earthquake
(page 17)
1763:The Jews of Safed are forced to pay for the battle expence of the wars between Omar and his son
(page 17)
1764:The first groups of Hasidim,Led by rabbi Nachman of hordna,
Come to Israel,And settle in Tiberia.


1765:The Jews of Hebron face again explusion by the Arab governores and local christians.The Muslim rullers want to expel the Jews and bring Christians insetad of them
(page 23)